The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani:
Respublikası, Turkish: Nahcivan Özek Cumhuriyeti, Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика) is an exclave of Azerbaijan.
In 1604, the Persian Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) forced all the Armenians of
the region to leave their homes and move to Persia, settling many of them
near Isfahan on a place named New Julfa since most of the residents were from
the original Julfa. The Nakhichevan khanate emerged in the region after the
death of Nadir Shah Afshar (1736-’47). After the two Russo-Persian wars and
the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Nakhichevan khanate passed to Russia in 1828. From
the onset of Russian rule, Armenians began to resettle in the area in larger
numbers than the trickle which had gone on since the original exodus.
Nakhichevan khanate was dissolved in 1840, and the area became Nakhichevan uyezd of Erivan
governorate of the Russian Empire.
fess: The chief per pale: 1. Or, Mount Ararat crested with Noah’s Ark proper;
2. Or, a fess wavy Azure; and a demi-escutcheon of the upper half of the arms
of Georgia; The base Gules, a spear per fess in chief and three quivers per
After the February Revolution the region was under the authority of the
Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government. In
1918 the Musavat Party proclaimed in Nakhichevan the Republic of Araks,
while the Armenian Republic claimed Nakhichevan for itself, as a large
minority of the population was Armenian. In the autumn of 1918 Nakhichevan
was occupied by British troops. After the withdrawal of the British troops
Nakhichevan was occupied by the 11th Red Army and the Soviet Socialist
Republic of Nakhichevan (Naxçıvan Sovet Sosialsit
Respublikası) was proclaimed on 28 July 1920. A Nakhchivan Autonomous State
(Naxçıvan Muxtar Diyarı) existed from 1923 to 1924. On the 9
February 1924 a Nakhichevan Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic was formed
within the Azerbaijan SSR.
By art 111 of the
Constitution adopted at the 10th session of the Nakhichevan Soviet on 18
September 1938, a coat of arms was adopted for the Na. A.S.S.R.. It was:
Arms: A hammer and a sickle in saltire,
in base a landscape with a derrick and a rising sun radiant, all proper.
Crest: a mullet Or voided Gules.
Garland: Ears of wheat and branches of
cotton proper, tied with a ribbon Gules extending per fess in chief.
Motto: On the dexter: АЗƏРБАИЧАН СОВЕТ СОСЯЛИСТ РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ and БУТУН-ƟЛКƏЛƏРИН ПРОЛЕТАРЛАРЫ БИРЛЭШИН!
sinister: The same name and motto but in Armenian, in golden lettering on a red ribbon.
On the lower
windings: NAXÇIVAN A.S.S.R. on the
dexter and the same name in Armenian
script on the sinister.
Emblem of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R, 1937
Art. 111 of 18.09.1937 reads:
АССР". В верхней
части герба -
On 25 August 1938
the texts in Armenian were replaced by texts in Russian:
Emblem of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R., 1938
In January 1990 Nakhichevan declared its independence from the USSR to
protest against the suppression of the national movement in Azerbaijan, and
became the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan
Muxtar Respublikası) within the newly independent Republic of
Azerbaijan a year later. It now is internationally recognized as a part of
Azerbaijan governed by its own elected parliament.
The republic uses the emblem of
the Republic of Azerbaijan without any addition.
Æ See also: Nakhichevan A.S.S.R.
© Hubert de Vries 2014-04-22