THE ANCIENT HINDU
CITY OF GOA WAS BUILT AT THE
SOUTHERNMOST POINT OF THE ISLAND. The medieval Arabian geographers knew it as Sindabur or Sandabur and
the Portuguese as Goa Velha. It was ruled by the Kadamba dynasty from the 2nd
century a.d. to 1312 and by
Muslim invaders of the Deccan from 1312 to 1367. It was annexed by the Hindu
kingdom of Vijayanagar and later conquered by the Bahmani dynasty, who
founded Old Goa in 1440.
subdivisions of the Bahmani kingdom after 1482, Goa passed into the power of
Yusuf Adil Shah, the Muslim king of Bijapur, who was its ruler when the Portuguese
first reached India.
attacked and conquered in March 1510 by the Portuguese under Albuquerque.
the first territorial possession of the Portuguese in Asia and became the
capital of the whole Portuguese empire in the east. It was granted the same
civic privileges as Lisbon.
appearance of the Dutch
in Indian waters was followed by a gradual decline of Goa.
attacks of the Dutch on the Portuguese possessions started in the time that
Portugal was a part of the Spanish monarchy The attacks nevertherless
continued after Portuguese independence was restored in 1640. In 1683 only
the timely appearance of a Mogul army saved Goa from capture by Maratha
raiders, and in 1739 the whole territory was attacked and only saved by the
unexpected arrival of a new viceroy with a fleet. The seat of the government
was moved then to Mormugã and in 1759 to Pangim.
19th century it was temporarily occupied by the British in 1809 as a result
of Napoleon´s invasion of Portugal.
Indian claims on Goa in 1948 and 1949, Portugal came under increasing
pressure to cede Goa, with its other posessions in the subcontinent, to
India. In 1951 the Estado da India was granted autonomy which was confirmed
by the constitution of 1955. A crisis was reached in the same year when satyagrahis
(nonviolent resistants) attempted to penetrate the territory of Goa. This led
to the severance of diplomatic relations between Portugal and India on Aug.
18, 1961, Indian troops invaded and occupied Goa, Damão and Diu. Portuguese
India was, by constitutional amendment incorporated into the Indian Union in
annexation of Goa was not recognized by the Salazar regime and Goa continued
to have a representation in the Portuguese parliament until 1974. After the
Carnation revolution Portugal and India came to terms about the status of Goa
with the treaty of 31st of December 1974.
beginning of the 16th century the Portuguese posessions in the far
east can be considered as a vice-kingdom, the governors bearing the title of vice-rei
alternating with the title of Governador or, from 1768 when the
colonies were named Índia, Governador e
Capitão-Geral da Índia. In 1821 the denomination was
changed into Estado da India (State of India), and this name was continued
after the Republic of Portugal was proclaimed in 1912.
the few hundred of viceroys and governors of India bore a coat of
arms. Some families are represented
with more than a single viceroy or governor like the family of the first
viceroy Francisco dAlmeida (8), of Vasco da Gama (5) and of Afonso de
Albuquerque (12). Some of these coats of arms are in the armorial of Antonio
Godinho (1541). )
of Francisco de Almeida, first viceroy of
Afonso de Albuquerque, first governor of India, 1509-15.
Later versions show the arms quar-tered with
Portugal (without the bordure Gules)
Arms of Duque de don Vaso da Gama,
primeum almirante da India.(Admiral of the Indian Ocean, Viceroy of
Antonio: Livro da Nobreza Perfeição das Armas dos Reis Cristaos e Nobres
Linhagens dos Reinos e Senhorios de Portugal, 1541. Fols. 11, 18. (Archivo
da Torre do Tombo. Lisboa)
governors general (governadores geral ) of the Estado da India bore a
distinctive flag consisting of a white field with a green fesse, charged in
the middle with the achievement of Portugal, like this :
The arms of the City of Goa
A coat of
arms for the city of Goa, until 1759 the residence of the viceroy, occurs on a
map of Goa by Jan Huygen van Linschoten, issued in 1596. It shows a
Catharine-wheel, an allusion to the Portuguese infante Catarina de Guimarães (1540-1614), claimant to the
Portuguese throne after the death of king Henry I. It is also said that the
arms were adopted because Afonso de Albuquerque conquered the city on St.
Catherines day, 1510.
St Catherine is said to have succeeded in
converting the wife of Emperor Maximian (r. 286-305), and many pagan wise men
whom the Emperor sent to dispute with her. All men were subsequently
martyred. Upon the failure of the Emperor to win Catherine over, he ordered
her to be put in prison; and when the people who visited her converted, she
was condemned to death on the breaking wheel.
According to legend, the wheel itself broke when she touched it, so
she was beheaded.
female crowned figure with book and sword, the symbols of Justice, which
supports the shield, may be the infante
Arms of Goa in Jan Huygen
van Linschotens, Itinerario 1596. 
An augmented coat of arms of Goa was published by
Francisco Coelho in his Tesouro da Nobreza, (1675). It shows the wheel of St.
Catherine, crowned with wat may be a mitre, and the castle of Castile and
consequently may have been designed in the time of Spanish rule (1583-1640).
Armas da Cidade de GOA.
From: Tesouro da Nobreza, fol. 10. (Instituto dos Archivos Nacionais)
Coat of arms of Goa City, 19th century
From: Colecção Brasões Cidades
Archivo Historico de Portugal: narrativa da fundação das cidades e villas do
reino, seus brazões d´armas, etc , 1890 pp.90-94 Goa Nova 
In the meantime
the symbols of the Portuguese
Seaborne Empire, which consisted of the Portuguese royal arms and the
cross of the Order of Christ, were also used in Goa.
In the colony the
royal arms of Portugal were valid as can be seen on this 1 rupia coin from
emblem, just for use in the Estado da India was only designed in the first
half of the 20th century
Arms of the State of India, 1933 
Arms: Argent, a ¾ portrait of Vasco da Gama keeping a shield of the quinas proper, within a bordure Or,
set with five escutcheons of the quinas
alternating with five crosses of the Order of Christ.
Crown: A mural crown of five towers charged with armillary spheres, the walls
charged with shields of the cross of the
Order of Christ.
coat of arms occurs on Goan tanga- and rupia coins struck in 1934-35,
showing a coat of arms:
Provisional arms of the Estado
Arms: Tierced per point arched, the first
Argent, five escutcheons Azure, five balls Argent in saltire, per cross; the
second Argent Vasco da Gama keeping a shield Azure, five balls Argent in
saltire; the third barry wavy of seven pieces Argent and Vert.
A year later
new arms were adopted by portaria
nº. 8098 of 1935.05.06. On
this occasion the second quarter was changed by the (modified) arms of the
city of Goa. It shows: Or, a water wheel (also: chakra) Sable in chief
and a tower Gules in base.
The shield is
supported by the crowned armillary-sphere common for all the achievements of
the Portuguese colonies designed in 1935. The arms were maintained after Goa
had become a Portuguese Overseas Province in 1951.
of the commander in chief of Goa was
of the common design adopted by portaria nº. 8098 of 1935.05.06. It
shows the cross of the Order of Christ on a golden edged, green field and a
white listel with the motto A LEI DA VIDA ETERNA
DILATANDO in black
lettering. In dexter chief there is a black canton charged with the arms of
The flag of the commander in chief of Goa was captured by Indian troops in 1961 and this was the end of Portuguese presence in Goa. (See illustration below)
The website of Goa State reports about the emblem of
the Government of Goa:
The emblem of Goa State has been designed taking
into consideration all the varied and rich facets of Goas rich cultural
heritage rooted in the national ethos. Its abundant scenic loveliness, the
bounties conferred on it by nature and the significant progress achieved by
its diligent and amiable people in the post-liberation era under a
democratic, popularly elected regime.
The Central symbolic design depicts a Vriksha
Deep the unique and world famed Goan traditional lamp which signified
enlightenment through knowledge.
A circular stylized design of coconut leaves
symbolizing the bountiful and beautiful Goan nature at the same time
suggesting the radiation of sunrays - the source of light and energy -
surrounds the inset in a halo of suggestive glory. The outer circle is formed
partly by a Sanskrit Subhashita (an auspicious saying) on the top of
the inset and the wording Government of Goa at the base. The auspicious
saying Subhashita means : Let everyone enjoy prosperity. Let none suffer
The global circle which suggests land or the earth,
is supported by two semi-cupped hands symbolizing the sustaining constructive
and protective activity of the people striving together for the progress of
the state. The lion headed national emblem is incorporated on the top.
illustration in the head of this essay.
emblems of the different services of Goa State are somewhat at variance with
this emblem. The symbol of the Legislative Assembly for example shows the chakra
from the Indian flag, surrounded by the legend goa
legislative assembly in english and hindi. It is crested by the emblem of India and
supported by two green palm leaves.
Police as an independent organisation was born in April 1946 with the
establishment of Policia do Estado da India (PEI) Police of India, through a
decree of the Portuguese regime. Until 1961, all policing functions including
the maintenance of law and order were being carried out by the Portuguese
emblem of Goa Police is a coat of arms:
Argent the letters GP, Or, and a bordure Or with the legend Goa police in
english and hindi.
Asoka capital being the emblem of India, Gules.
Branches of laurel, Vert.
Jayate in devanagiri, being the motto of India, in black lettering on a
Daman and Diu (Damão e Diu) is a union territory in Western India. It is the smallest federal division of India on the mainland. The territory comprises two distinct regions - Daman and Diu - that are geographically separated by the Gulf of Khambhat. The territory is borderd by the state of Gujarat and the Arabian Sea. A Portuguese colony since the 1500s, the territory was annexed by India in 1961.
Reliefs on the Moti Gate of Daman
entrance is a royal achievement of Portugal, crowned and supported by two
lions. On de central inscription King
Sebastian (1557-1578) is mentioned. On the left is de date 1829: D. Manuel
Francisco Zacarias de Portugal e Castro (Vice-roy and Governor General of
India (1826-1835) and on the right the date 1797: Francisco António da Veiga
Cabral da Câmara, Viscount of Mirandela (Governor and Captain-General of India(1794-1806).)
© Hubert de Vries 2009-10-06. Updated 2016-01-30; 2019-01-22; 2019-03-05
coats of arms of the first eight viceroys and governors are on a series of
stamps of the Estado da India, issued in 1957 and published in Archivum
Heraldicum, 1962, pp. 58-60.
official denomination 1910-1961
the distinctive flag of the Governors
General showed two green horizontal
stripes on a white field, charged with the cross of the Order of the Empire
(1932). The use of such a flag by the Governor General of the Estado da India
 Itinerario, voyage ofte schipvaert, van Ian Huygen van Linschoten naer de Oost ofte Portugaels Indien, inhoudende een corte beschrijvinghe der selver landen ende zeecusten... (Amsterdam 1595-96)