GRANDE DO SUL
Spaniards to reach the region that is nowadays Paraguay, Northwestern
Argentina and Rio Grande do Sul, were Jesuit priests who settled there with
the idea of converting the indigenous population to Catholicism. To that end,
they founded villages known in Castilian as misiones or reducciones,
and in Portuguese as missões or reduções, populated by Guarani
In the early
17th century, the Jesuits founded missions to the East of the Uruguay river, in
the Northwest of modern Rio Grande do Sul.
were destroyed by slave-preying bandeirantes, between 1636 and 1638;
however, in 1687, the Jesuits were back to the region, having (re)founded
seven reductions - the Sete Povos das Missões. The region remained under
Spanish sovereignty, though in practice the Jesuits operated quite
independently, up to the late 17th century. Finally the Jesuits were expelled
from South America in 1756.
In 1738 the
territory (which included the present state of Santa Catarina) became the
Capitania d'el Rei and was made a dependency of Rio de Janeiro. In 1760 the
captaincy of Rio Grande de São Pedro was created with the town of Rio Grande
as its capital. For military convenience the district of Santa Catarina was
separated from that new captaincy. Territorial disputes between Spain and
Portugal led to the occupation by the Spaniards of the town of Rio Grande and
neighbouring districts from 1763 to 1776. The capture of Rio Grande in 1763
caused the removal of the seat of government to Viamão at the head of Lagoa
dos Patos; in 1773 Porto dos Cazaes, renamed Porto Alegre, became the
reverted to the Portuguese in 1776, the Santo Ildefonso Treaty of 1777
granted the coastal region to Portugal, and the Missões to Spain.
On 19 September
1807 Rio Grande de São Pedro was elevated to the category of a
“capitania-geral” by the Portuguese, with the designation of “São Pedro do
Rio Grande do Sul”, independent of Rio de Janeiro, and with Santa Catarina as
a dependency. In 1812 Rio Grande and Santa Catarina were organized into two
distinct administrative divisions, the latter becoming an independent
province on 28 February 1821 when the Empire of Brazil was organized.
do Piratini or República Rio-Grandense 11.09.1836 - 01.03.1845
Unwillingness of the Imperial Government to take protectionist measures against the import of products from Rio de la Plata led to political demands of greater autonomy by the landowners of Rio Grande, and ideas of a federal relationship towards the rest of Brazil were put forth. These escalated into the full Farroupilha rebellion on 20 September 1835. An independent state was proclaimed on 11 September 1836 by Antônio de Souza Netto. The new state was called the República do Piratini (after its ephemeral capital Piratini) and later the Republica Rio-Grandense. Bento Gonçalves da Silva became its first president.
In 1842, the Empire
assigned a new Provincial governor and military commander, Luís Alves de Lima e Silva,
later Duke of Caxias. The inability of the rebels to secure contact with the
world through a seaport, the dwindling economy of the Province, combined with
Caxias’ superior capabilities as a military commander, led to the fall, in
1843, of the important rebel strongholds of Caçapava, Bagé, and Alegrete.
As a result the Republic was dissolved on 1
March 1845 and reintegrated into the Brazilian Empire.
beginning of their colonisation of the South American territories the Jesuits
were subordinated to all these Spanisg Governmental institutions.
consisted of a sun radiant charged with the cypher IHS and the three nails of
the cross of Christ below
emblem was placed on a shield:
arms of the Societas Jesu
Joseph, Padre S.J: Historia Natvral e Moral de las Indias. Sevilla, 1590.
In the time of
Portuguese Rule the emblems of Portugal and the Principality
of Brazil were valid in Rio Grande.These were replaced by the emblems of the Brazilian Empire from 1821
until 1889 with the exeption of the time when the República Rio-Grandense was
founded on its territory.
11.09.1836 - 01.03.1845
emblem of the Republica Rio-Grandense is on a Peso coin dated 1835.
peso coin of the Republica Rio-Grandense, 1835
a sword upright crested with a phrygian cap and held by two clasped hands
of the Republica Rio-Grandense was probably adopted in 1836, soon after the
proclamation of the Republic on 11 September 1836. The achievement was:
Arms: Argent, a diamond shaped shield,
tierced per fess Vert, Or and Gules, an escutcheon Argent, a sword per pale
crested with a phrygian cap Gules and surrounded by a crown of laurel;
between two pillars crested with globes and standing on a base wavy of three
tops Vert; and a bordure Argent bearing the legend: REPUBLICA RIO GRANDENSE 20 DE SPTEMBRO DE 1835.
Supporters: A trophy of a spear, four rifles, four national flags and two cannon
in saltire all proper, the flags being of three bends green, red and yellow.
Motto: LIBERDADE IGUALDADE HUMANIDADE. (Liberty, Equality, Humanity) 
A device called
a coat of arms is described in the decree of 12 November 1836 about the flag
of the Republic. The decree reads:
“Occupando já na grande familia das nações no logar, que lhe
compete, o Estado Rio Grandense, e convindo que ella tenha um escudo de
armas, o presidente da Republica decreta:
O escudo de armas do Estado Rio Grandense será de ora em diante da
fórma de um quadrado dividido pelas tres côres, assim dispostas: a parte
superior, junto á haste, verde, é formada por um triangulo isoceles, cuja
hypothenusa será parallela á diagonal do quadrado; o centro escarlate,
formado por um hexagono, determinado pela hypothenusa do primeiro triangulo,
e o de outro igual e symetricamente disposto, côr de oiro que formará a parte
Domingos José de Almeida, ministro e secretario de Estado dos
Negocios do interior, assim o tenha entendido e faça executar com os
(a) José Gomes de Vasconcellos Jardim
(a) Domingos José de Almeida
Which, in fact is an intricate
descripion of the national flag of the Republic. Some ancient representations of the achievement
show what achievement was adopted in fact.
of the Republica Rio-Grandense, probably from the time of the republic
Museu Julio de Castilhos, Porto Alegre)
In this version
the stars are five-pointed and a horse, a sheep and a bull are added in base.
As a crest there is the Eye of Providence which did not return in younger
versions. Above it is a trumpeting angel on the clouds announcing ?
compartment we see the symbols of navigation and commerce, a cornucopia for
prosperity, a plant of cotton and grapes of vine.
of the Republica Piratiny or the Republica Rio-Grandense was adopted as the
achievement of the State of Rio Grande do Sul by Constitution of the State of
1891, Art. VI. The design shows some differences with the design illustrated
above. The achievement is now:
Detail of a cloth showing the achievement of Rio
Grande do Sul,
Probably end of the 19th, beginning of the 20th century (Coll. Museu Julio de Castilhos, Porto
a diamond tierced per fess Vert, Gules and Or, in chief a six-pointed star Or
and in base a six-pointed star Gules; and a rectangular escutcheon Argent, a
sword per pale crested with a phrygian cap and surrounded by a crown of
laurel; between two pillars crested with a globe Or, standing on hills Vert;
and a bordure Argent bearing the legend: REPUBLICA RIO GRANDENSE / 20 SEPTEMBRO 1835.
trumpeting angel hovering above the clouds
Supporters: A trident, two spears, two rifles and four national flags in
saltire and in base a trumpet and a cannon per fess, the cannon charged with
two swords in saltire.
Motto: LIBERDADE IGUALDADE HUMANIDADE on a yellow-white-red ribbon.
Clothes showing the achievement of Rio Grande do
Probably end of the 19th, beginning of the 20th century (Coll. Museu Julio de Castilhos, Porto
Somewhat later the trumpeting angel
In 1934 the achievement was abandoned
and replaced by the National Emblem of Brazil. After WW II however the
emblems of the states were restored.
Arms of the the State of
Rio Grande do Sul (?)
Ministério do Interior
(Acervo do Museu Julio de Castilhos,
Porto Alegre) 
A picture from this time, probably a
project, shows the achievement still further simplified by omitting the
bordure with the legend referring to the rebellious republic of 1835.
Also, the diamond tierced per fess is
changed into a diamond all Vert
charged with a rectangular escutceon Or (the colors of the Brazilian flag)
and the two stars are replaced by two suns radiant.
achievement was adopted by Lei
estadual nº 5.213, de 5 de Janeiro de 1966. revised by Lei estadual n°
12.072, de 22 de abril de 2004. It
Arms: Argent, a diamond shaped shield Vert,
charged with a five-pointed stars Or, one in chief and one in base and an
escutcheon Argent, a sword per pale crested with a phrygian cap Gules and
surrounded by a crown of laurel; between two pillars crested with globes and
standing on a base wavy of three tops Vert; and a bordure Azure bearing the
legend: REPUBLICA RIO GRANDENSE / 20 DE SPTEMBRO DE
Supporters: A trophy of a spear, four rifles, four national flags and two
cannon in saltire all proper, the flags being of three bends sinister green,
red and yellow.
Motto: LIBERDADE IGUALDADE HUMANIDADE. (Liberty, Equality, Humanity)
ð See illustration in the head of this essay.
The section of the law about the achievement reads:
The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the territory of the 3rd Military Region.
headquarters are in Porto Alegre.
The arms are derived from the arms of the family De Sousa Prado.
The achievement of
Arms: Or, a bayonet per pale Gules, charged with
an oval shield of the arms of rio Grande do Sul, the bordure Azure, five
five-pointed stars Argent; and surrounded by a branch of cotton and a branch
of tea; and a bordure Gules, five billets in chief and ten five pointed stars
Crest: A centaur proper and a five-pointed star
radiant of five rays pointing downwards Gules.
Garland: Branches of oak
Motto: 18 DE NOVEMBRO DE 1837.
The parts of the
achievement are explained as follows:
Bayonet: Justice and Disciplin
5 Silver Stars on the bordure: 1 Comand, 2 Companies Infantry, 2 Companies
Branches of tobacco and tea: The traditional wealth of
Rio Grande do Sul
10 golden stars: The main campaigns: 1865: War of Paraguay; 1874: Campaign against
Mucker; 1893: Federal Revolution; 1923: Assista Revolution; 1924-1925:
Paulista and Colina Prestas Revolution; 1926: Rebellions of Bagé, São Gabriel and Santo Maria; 1927: Rebellions of Erexin and Santa
Bárbara; 1930 Revolution; 1932: Constitutional Revolution.
Five billets: Five commanders: Col. Claudino Nunez Pereira; Col. João de Deus
Canabarro Cunha; Col. Affonso Emilio
Massot; Col. Fabricio de Oliveira Pilar; Col. Appáricio Gonçalves Borges.
The Centaur: Vigilance, Wisdom, Autority, Bravery and Protection.
Red star: State of Rio Grande do Sul
Five rays: Five designations: Força Policial - Corpo Policial - Guarda Civica -
Brigada Policial - Brigada Militar.
Branches of oak: Force and Longevity
Legend: The date of the foundation of the corps
© Hubert de Vries 2011-12-13
 Clericus, Ludwig: Außereuropäische Wappen. In: Der Deutsche Herold, 1879, p 124 Taf. XII.
 After a description by Alfredo de Carvalho: Brazões do Brasil Republicano, no “Almanach de Pernambuco”, 1904, pag. 13 (in: Ribeiro. Clovis: Brazoes e Bandeiras do Brazil. Editoria Sao Paolo. Sao Paolo, 1933. Pp. 145-146).
 No information about the four pictures from the Museo Julio de Castilho could be obtained.