The Kingdom of Armenia/Cilicia
Antioch was captured in 1098 by Bohemund of
Hauteville originating from Apulia and son of Robert Guiscard. Bohemund founded
a principalty independent from Byzantium against the wishes of the Emperor
Alexius who had wanted to reunite the territory to the Byzantine Empire.
Instead the principalty became a de jure vassal of the Patriarch of
Jerusalem and later of Baldwin of Bouillon who had been crowned king by the Patriarch.
After the fall
of Edessa in 1144, Antioch was attacked by Nur ad-Din during the Second
Crusade. Much of the eastern part of the Principality was lost, and Raymond
was killed at the battle of Inab in 1149. His successor, Raynald, immediately
found himself in conflict with the Byzantines, this time in Cyprus; he made
peace with Manuel I Comnenus, however, in 1158, and the next year Manuel
arrived to take personal control of the Principality. Henceforth, the
Principality of Antioch was to be a vassal of Byzantium until Manuel's death
in 1180. Although this arrangement meant that the Principality had to provide
a contingent for the Byzantine Army (troops from Antioch participated in an
attack on the Seljuk Turks in 1176), it also safeguarded the city against Nur
ad-Din at a time when it was in serious danger of being overrun.
At his death
Raymond III bequeathed the County of Tripoli to Bohemund III.
Bohemond III's death resulted in a struggle for control between Antioch, represented by Bohemond of Tripoli, and Armenia, represented by Bohemond III's grandson Raymond-Rupen. Bohemond of Tripoli, as Bohemond IV, took control by 1207, but Raymond briefly ruled as a rival from 1216 to 1219.
in 1233, and Antioch, ruled by his son Bohemond V, played no important role in the
Fifth Crusade, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II's struggles to take back
Jerusalem in the Sixth Crusade, or Louis IX of France's Seventh Crusade.
In 1268 the city was captured by the Mameluks and Bohemund VI retired to Tripoli which fell in 1289.
From that time there only have been titulary Princes of Antioch.
red lion of
In 13th century sources the arms of Antiochia are described and given as Argent, a lion Gules. Their origin may be in Byzantium of which the Prince of Antioch was a (nominal) vassal.
This Lion may be traced back to Bohemond I who in 1097 blandly requested of Emperor Alexius the office of grand domestic of the east, which would have made him imperial viceroy for all the lands that the crusaders might conquer..”
This is reported by
Anna Komnena in the Alexiade (Book X, H.XI )):
when Bohemund demanded the office of Grand Domestic of the East, he (Alexius
I) did not gain his request, for he was trying to ‘out-Cretan a Cretan’. For
the Emperor feared that if he gained power he would make the other Counts his
captives and bring them round afterwards to doing whatever he wished. Further
he did not want Bohemund to have the slightest suspicion that he was already
detected, so he flattered him with fair hopes by saying, “The time for that has not come yet; but by
your energy and reputation and above all by your fidelity it will come ere long.””
of Michael VII Parapinaces.
There is no record that Alexius granted such
a request but maybe Bohemund was appeased by the function of a protovestiarios,
a high-ranking title bestowed to important aristocrats which, in
the 9th -11th centuries were appointed as generals and ambassadors (and that
he was). The emblem of rank of a Byzantine count was a lion and of
such a protovestiarios a red lion on a white background. This can be
seen on a picture of Michael VII Parapinaces where a proedros
protovestiarios is depicted dressed in a tunica charged with big
medallions enclosing red lions passant. 
Such a red lion was probably also adopted by
Raymond of Poitiers and the House of Poitiers in general, as a red lion was
the arms of the Count of Poitou until the mid-13t century. In Antioch the red
lion can be traced back with some certainty to Bohemond IV whose son Henry
married Melisende de Lusignan. Their son Hugues III of Cyprus combined the
arms of Lusignan with a red lion.
The red lion on a white field can also be
found on a stone, today in the Museum of Cairo.
Lion on a stone with traces of red paint
Late 13th century. H.: 37.5 cm;
W.: 40.0 cm. D.: 12.7 cm
Cairo, Museum of Islamic Art, 3796. Purchased 1911.
Touches of red pigment remaining inside the claws
and recesses of the floral design on the rump indicate that the animal was
once covered with (red) paint.
On a glass in
the Victoria and Albert Museum in London there is also a red lion on a white
beaker with red lion passant
1260-1277 V&A Museum, London, inv nr. 335-1900. Room 131, case 47
Both pieces are
attributed to Sultan Baybars of Egypt who captured
Antioch in 1268 but his blazon was:
Sable, a lion Argent. Both pieces however may be considerably older
and may date before the capture of Antioch in 1268.
Argent, a lion Gules was used by all titulary
princes of Antioch until the end of the Venetian Republic in 1795.
A short interruption in the use of this emblem consists of the arms
granted to Bohemund VI by King Louis of France. “With the king’s consent he
quartered his arms, which were gules, with the arms of France, because
the king had made him a knight.”  At the time
(1252) Antioch was still ruled by his mother Luciana of Segni.
For that reason the quartered arms are the arms of the successor in Antioch and in particular of Bohemund who bore, as a prince without any military rank, no blason but the colour of the armed force.
The granting of the semy of France was an unusual favour.
The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. The beginnings of the County came in 1102, when Count Raymond IV of Toulouse, one of the chief leaders of the First Crusade, began a lengthy war with the Banu Ammar Emirs of Tripoli (theoretically vassals of the Fatimid caliphs in Cairo), gradually seizing much of their territory and besieging them within Tripoli itself.
Raymond died in 1105, leaving his infant son
King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Bertrand and William-Jordan came to an agreement under which each would keep control of their own conquests, an agreement from which Bertrand got the better part of when he captured Tripoli later that year. When William-Jordan died a few months later, Bertrand became sole ruler. The County of Tripoli continued to exist as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, while within the county itself the Knights Hospitaller were given an autonomous castle in 1142, the famous Krak des Chevaliers.
2nd Equestrian seal: Arms:
a 12-pointed latin cross formy pommelly. L.: s raimv(ndi dvc)is narbone comitis (tolose
marchionis p)rovincie. D.: IV. 1204. (Douët
d'Arcq. No. 742).
The arms of Raymond de St. Gilles certainly
were his arms as a commander of the first crusade. It can be seen on his seal
dated 1104 showing [Gules] a latin cross formy pommelly [Or] voided of the
field. Later counts seem to have used: Gules, a lion Or. These
arms are documented by Matthew Paris at the capture of the true cross by
Saladin. Count Raymond III is depicted there helping his king to keep the
true cross. On his back is a shield of a yellow lion on a red field. 
Raymond III helping his king recovering the true cross at the battle
Paris, Chronica Majora fol 279.
Le Roy de surie
Seal of Pons of Tripoli
Knight with banner with
L.: PONCIVS COMES TRIPOLI 
The emblem of the
united principalities of Antioch and Tripoli was a yellow cross on a red
field. It is documented by the Wijnbergen roll with the legend: le Roy de surie. 
This emblem is the same as the emblem of the
Byzantine Empire, as displayed on its banner.  The legend refers to the former Roman
province of Syria which had its capital at Antioch.
A banner with a crux
quadrata was also displayed by Pons of Tripoli as can be seen on his
seal. As Tripoli was a vassal of Jerusalem at his reign this cross probably
was the cross of Jerusalem (Or, a square cross Argent).
© Hubert de Vries 2011-07-21; Updated 2016-12-02
Alexiad of the Princess Anna Komnena. Being te history of the reign of her
father Alexius I, Emperor of the Romans 1081-1118 AD. Trans. by Elizabeth A.S.
Dawes. London, 1967. P. 267.
 Michael VII (1060-1078) and his courtiers in the Homilies of Johannes Chrysostomos (Paris Bibl. Nat., Ms Coislin 79, fol. 2r , 11th century).
 Joinville and Villehardouin: Chronicles of the Crusades. Penguin Classics. London, 1963 p. 297.
1187 Matthew Paris Chronica Majora, Cambridge, Corp. Christi Coll. MS 26
fol 279  Saladin Capturing the True Cross, 1187 (2:328) bottom right
margin: Salaadinus - Guido rex. Crux sca. The assistant of Guy with a shield on his back.
 From: Archer, Thomas Andrew & Charles Lethbridge Kingsford: The crusades; the story of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. 1894
 Adam-Even op.cit. n° 1308
 According to the Madrilene Chronicle of Johan Skylitzes. Palermo, ca. 1150-’75. Bibl. Nacional, Madrid, Vitr. 26-2