Starting in the
13th century, access to prestige trade goods and to sources of iron started to
alter long-standing cultural patterns, and to permit ambitious individuals to
build larger political units in Sulawesi. It is not known why these two
ingredients appeared together; one was perhaps the product of the other. By
1400, a number of nascent agricultural principalities had arisen in the
western Cenrana valley, as well as on the south coast and on the east coast
near modern Parepare.
Europeans to visit the island (which they believed to be an archipelago due
to its contorted shape) were Portuguese sailors in 1525, sent from the
Moluccas in search of gold, which the islands had the reputation of
producing. The Dutch arrived in 1605 and were quickly followed by the
English, who established a factory in Makassar. From 1660, the Dutch were at
war with Gowa, the major Makassar west
coast power. In 1669, Admiral Speelman forced the ruler, Sultan Hasanuddin,
to sign the Treaty of Bongaya, which handed control of trade to the Dutch East India Company.
The Dutch were aided in their conquest by the Bugis warlord Arung Palakka,
ruler of the Bugis kingdom of Bone. The Dutch built a
fort at Ujung Pandang, while Arung Palakka became the regional overlord and
Bone the dominant kingdom. Political and cultural development seems to have
slowed as a result of the status quo. In 1905 the entire island became part
of the Netherlands
East Indies. It was the most important island of the Gouvernement
Groote Oost established in 1938 and occupied by the Japanese Navy in 1942. After the war Celebes became a part of
the State of
East-Indonesia (Indonesia Timur), the successor of the Groote Oost with
Makassar as its capital. Following
the transfer of sovereignty in December 1949, Sulawesi became a part of the
Province of Indonesia Timur, created in 1945 as a part of the Republic of
Indonesia. Sulawesi was divided in five provinces after the revolts of 1958
in Sumatera and Northern Sulawesi. In 2000 Gorontalo became the sixth province.
All provinces of Sulawesi are
controlled by the TNI Komando Daerah Militer (Kodam) VII/Wirabuana.
This Unit includes the Batalyon Infanteri 714.
Under Dutch rule today’s Gorontalo was a division from Manado Residency called Soengoe Minasa. In 1938 it became a part of the Gouvernement Groote Oost and in 1946 a part of the State of East Indonesia.
On 16 February 2000 the division, formerly a part of Sulawesi Utara, became a separate province.
The Motto of Gorontalo is: Duluo Limo Lo Pohalaa which is Gorontalo language for “The land of Medina’s gate”.
The achievement of Gorontalo is:
Emblem: Argent, a tower of three embattlements, charged with an
escutcon pearted per bend sinister Gules and Argent, between two coco-nut
trees, and an open book in base all proper
Crest: A five-pointed star Or
Supporters: Two wings Or
Garland: A branch of cotton and an ear of rice proper connected
with a chain of 23 links Argent
Motto: PROVINSI GORONTALO in
white lettering on a red scroll.
Backshield: A lilac-colored five-cornered shield.
The cotton branch, the ear if
rice and the chain make the date 23 January 1942, the date Gorontalo achieved
independence from Dutch rule.
The two wings symbolize
dynamism, the eight feathers of each wing are for the date of 16 February
2000, the day Gorontalo became a separate province.
š See illustration in the head of this section.
The achievement is derived and
inspired by the achievement of the city of Gorontalo, the capital of the
province. The achievement is:
Arms: Per pale Vert and Sable, two palm-trees
inclined to the center and in chief a five-pointed star Or, and a base Azure,
issuing therefrom a five-leaved flower also Or, and a bordure Gules, in
dexter chief a branch of cotton and in sinister chief an ear of rice proper,
connected with a chain Argent.
Supporters: Two wings of seven feathers each, Or.
Motto: KOTAMADYA DATI II GORONTALO
The Province of Sulawesi Barat, formerly Mandar division and a part of Sulawesi Selatan, was created in 2004. Its capital is Mamuju.
of Sulawesi Barat is:
Emblem: A disc engrailed
of 14 points, each point covered, Argent, a mountain rising from the sea and
an outrigger proa, surrounded by a garland of cotton and rice.
Crest: a payong
(umbrella) charged with a trident and a five-pointed star in chief.
DIATONGANAN: Following the
a chief Gules the name SULAWESI BARAT Argent.
š See illustration in the head of this
Traditional Gulf of Tomini Shield 
The province of Sulawesi Tengah formerly Afdeeling
Midden Celebes and a part of Residentie Manado, later Sulawesi
Utara, was created on 13 April 1964.
Traditional shields from the northwestern region
of Sulawesi were made from one single piece of wood, its handle on the
backside carved from the same block. They were inlaid with bone and nassa
shells (Nassarius dumeril - Nassariinę) and decorated with human hair,
probably of killed enemies. Later the human hair was replaced by animal hair
- goat for the most part.
The shields were employed in sword fights and war
At the turn of the twentieth century such shields
were still used by the Guard of Honour in Manado as can be seen on the
Guard of Honour in
Coll. Tropenmuseum Amsterdam, inv. nr. 10001884
Judging by the shields the guard is composed of
people from different regions of Manado Residency. The crests on their
headdresses are probably badges of rank.
The present administrative emblem of Sulawesi Tengah
Arms: Parted per bend sinister Azure and Or, a palmtree proper; in chief a
five-pointed star Or and in base two barrulets indented Azure,; and a garland
of rice and cotton, tied with a ribbon Gules.
Title: SULAWESI TENGAH in red lettering on a white chief of the
The palmtree is
for the copra culture, the waves are for the sea. The garland makes the date
13 April 1964, the date of the creation of the province of Central Sulawesi.
š See illustration in the head of this section
The emblem was
adopted on 1 Octber 1969. The decree, in Bahasa, reads as follows:
From the seventeenth
century until the early twentieth century, the region was the site of the
Buton Sultanate (Butung). In the time of Dutch rule the territory was divided
in the districts Loewoe
(south) and Oost-Celebes. The province, formerly a part
of Sulawesi Selatan was created on 27 April 1964.
Emblem: Argent, the head of an Anoa (Bubalus
Depressicornis - Bovidę) affrontée proper sur-rounded by a chain Or,
Garland: A brach of cotton and an ear
TENGGARA in red lettering
Backshield: The emblem of Sulawesi
Tenggara is on a five-cornered shield girony of five, the first and the
second Or, the dexter brown, the sinister Sable and the base Vert
The colors mean:
š See illustration in the head of this section
© Hubert de Vries
 ) Picture from: Shields. From the Collections of the Barbier-Mueller Museum. Munich, 2000. No. 60.