Choson Mindshudshuy Inmin
Republic of Korea
surrender of Japan on 16 August 1945, the Soviet Union installed Kim Il-Sung in
September 1945 as head of the Provisional People’s Committee. He was not, at
this time, the head of the Communist Party, whose headquarters were in Seoul
in the U.S.-occupied south.
a professional army, the Korean People's Army (KPA) aligned with the
Communists, formed from a cadre of guerrillas and former soldiers who had
gained combat experience in battles against the Japanese and later
Nationalist Chinese troops. From their ranks, using Soviet advisers and
equipment, Kim constructed a large army skilled in infiltration tactics and
original plans called for all-Korean elections sponsored by the United
Nations in 1948, Kim persuaded the Soviets not to allow the UN north of the
38th parallel. As a result, a month after the Republic of Korea was granted
independence on 15 August 1948, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(DPRK) was proclaimed on 9 September, with Kim as premier. On October 12, the
Soviet Union declared that Kim's regime was the only lawful government on the
peninsula. Attempts of Kim, backed by the KPA, to conquer the Syngman Rhee
government in the south, resulted in a war which lasted until 1953 when the
front was stabilized. After long negotiations both parties agreed to a
emblem is said to be a creation of Kim Il-Sung who, in January 1948 ordered
that “The National Emblem must have the working class at its core and be
based on the alliance between workers and farmers
to consolidate the unity of the people, and must be drawn to clearly express
powerful modern industry, advanced agriculture and development”. Also the
emblem had to “Show the future wealth, power and prosperity of the New Korea
by drawing our Hydroelectric plant”. A proposal to incorporate a picture of
the Kyongbok palace of the Yi Dynasty in
the emblem was rejected.
The national emblem was adopted on 9 September 1948, the day of the
proclamation of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, together with the
Chapter IX, Art 101 of the Constitution about the national symbols
The arms of state of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
consist of a garland of ears of rice tied with a ribbon. Below is written Djo-sun
Mindju-dju-i In min gong-hoa-guk (in Han-gul script).
Within the garland of ears of rice is a
naturalistic picture of a hydroelectric plant, in the upper part a red
radiating five-pointed star.
present 2009 redaction reads:
Chapter VII EMBLEM, FLAG, ANTHEM AND CAPITAL
Article 169. The national emblem of the Democratic People’s Republic of
Korea bears the design of a grand hydroelectric power station under Mt.
Paektu, the sacred mountain of the revolution, and the beaming light of a five-pointed
red star, with ears of rice forming an oval frame, bound with a red ribbon
bearing the inscription “The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”.
The hydroelectric plant is the Sup’ung Hydroelectric Plant
located in the northwest in the Yalu river and built by the Japanese in
1937-‘41. It symbolizes ‘a powerful heavy industry, a selfreliant modern
manufacturing industry and the working class’. The star symbolizes ‘the
revolutionary tradition and the bright future of the Korean people’. The ears
of rice ‘represent the unity of the farmers with the working class’.
Personal flag of Kim Jong Il (1991/’94-2011)
as a supreme commander
* The number 4.25 refers to the date of the foundation of the KPA: 25
April 1948. 
© Hubert de Vries 2012-01-16
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