Sultanate in the south east of the Arab peninsula. Formerly Maskat and Oman an renamed Oman on 8 August 1971. Since 18 November 1970 Sultan Qaboos bin Sa’id is the ruler of Oman.
From the 3rd
century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Oman was controlled
by two other Iranian dynasties, the Parthians and the Sassanids. During this
period Oman's administrative name was Mazun.
Islam in the 7th century, during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad.
Ibadism became the dominant religious sect in Oman by the 8th century
was conquered by several foreign powers, having been controlled by the
Qarmatians between 931–932 and then again between 933–934. Between 967 and
1053, Oman was part of the domain of the Iranian Buyyids, and between 1053
and 1154, Oman was part of the Great Seljuk empire.
In 1154, the
indigenous Nabhani dynasty took control of Oman, and the Nabhani kings ruled
Oman until 1470, with an interruption of 37 years between 1406 and 1443.
taken by the Portuguese on 1 April 1515, and was held until 26 January 1650,
although the Ottomans controlled Muscat between 1550–1551 and 1581–1588. In
about the year 1600, Nabhani rule was temporarily restored to Oman, although
that lasted only to 1624, when fifth imamate, which is also known as the
Yarubid Imamate. The latter recaptured Muscat from the Portuguese in 1650
after a colonial presence on the northeastern coast of Oman dating to 1508.
The Yarubid dynasty expanded, acquiring former Portuguese colonies in East
Africa and engaging in the slave trade. By 1719 dynastic succession led to
the nomination of Saif ibn Sultan II. His candidacy prompted a rivalry among
the ulama and a civil war between the two major tribes, the Hinawi and the
Ghafiri, with the Ghafiri supporting Saif ibn Sultan II. He assumed power in
1748 after the leaders of both factions had been killed in battle, but the
rivalry continued, with the factionalization working in favor of the
Iranians, who occupied Muscat and Sohar in 1743.
Sa'id bin Sultan Al-Busaid died in 1856, his sons quarreled over the
succession. As a result of this struggle, the empire—through the mediation of
the British Government under the Canning Award—was divided in 1861 into two
separate principalities: Zanzibar
(with its East African dependencies), and Muscat and Oman.
In 1868 Azzam
ibn Qais Al-Busaid (r. 1868–1871) emerged as self-declared imam. Although a
significant number of Hinawi tribes recognized him as imam, the public
neither elected him nor acclaimed him as such.
In 1970, Qaboos
bin Said Al Said ousted his father, Sa'id bin Taymur, who later died in exile
in London. Al Said has ruled as sultan ever since.
heraldry is dominated by flags and tughra’s but very little of it has been
preserved. In the following a short review is given of early Omani emblems.
Nabhan Dynasty 1406 - 1624
Homem, on his map of the Indian Ocean (1555) gives for Oman, then a Portugues
Protectorate a flag: Gules, four escutceons Azure, charged with five balls
Argent..(ill.) This is a symbol that is specific for the Omani settlements in
the 16th century because in this time different flags were flown in Mombasa
Ya'ariba Dynasty (first reign, 1624-1724)
The flag of the Omani Ya’rubi dynasty is documented by a Dutch flag
chart of about the middle of the 18th century called Nieuwe Tafel van alle de Zee-varende VLAGGE des Werelds, op nieuws van alle voorgaande Fouten gesuyverd. under the name of Pav: de Sangrian. It was a flag of 13 stripes
red-white-green-yellow-red-green-yellow-red-green-yellow-re-white and green,
the yellow stripes charged with green crescents 3,2,3, like this:
Abu Sa'id Dynasty (1749-Present)
After the extinction of the Ya'ariba dynasty in 1744, the new Abu
Sa’id dynasty, to which all later Omani sultans belonged, flew their own
flag which was red without any other
For other Omani flags ð Roberto Bresci
H.H. al-Haj Sultan Sayyid Said ibn Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman
1806 - 1856
Tughra of Sultan Sayyid Said ibn
= 1816 AD
Oman 1971 - present
Maskat and Oman Coin, 1940
Showing the emblem of
Maskat and Oman.
The emblem of Maskat and Oman is known with certainty from the reign of Sa’id III ibn Taimur as-Saíd. It is on the reverse of a series of coins issued in 1940.
The emblem consists of two sabres in saltire and a khanjar per pale.
Emblem of Maskat and Oman, 1940 -
A khanjar is a ceremonial dagger with its abundantly decorated sheath, traditionally made of rhinonoceros-horn. The khanjar is highly appreciated in the arab world and for that reason contributes substantially to the extinction of the rhinoceros in Africa.
Museum voor Volkenkunde, Rotterdam)
Qaboos ibn Sa’id
1971 - present
In 1980 the emblem was restyled.
ð See illustration in the head of this essay.
At the same time a royal royal emblem was adopted. This last consists of the state-emblem of Oman, crested with the Royal crown of Oman:
of Oman's Armed Forces (SAF) are the Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of
Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman and other defence forces of the Sultanate of
Oman. They were established in th early 1950s with British assistance.
emblem of the tri-service of the armed forces of Oman, as illustrated above,
was of three bars red, light blue and navy blue charged with two rifles in
saltire, a pair of wings per fess, and an anchor per pale, charged with a khanjar
per pale; crested with the royal crown and surrounded by a garland of laurel.
In base is a scroll with the name of the service.
Emblem on the army flag
Emblem of the RON (1995)
Emblem of the ROAF
Arms of the ROAF
Emblem of the Royal Oman
© Hubert de Vries
 ) Burke's Royal Families of the
World. Vol. II, Africa & the Middle East. London, Burke's Peerage Ltd.