the middle ages the territory of today’s Tchad was intersected by caravan
trails. Abesehr was a station on such a trail mentioned by Angelino Dulcerta
on his portolan. Abesehr was situated at the southernmost border of
the Islamic world. It was connected with Tripoli with a road through Sakha
and Audjila in Libya along the modern border between Egypt an Libya. From
there there was also a connection with Ethiopia. For a long time the region
remained unknown in Europe. There were a few petty kingdoms in the region
like Berdoa, Kanem-Bornu (later: Borku) and Zaneara. These petty kingdoms
were famous for their hoards of gold and their magnificent regalia and ceremonies. A sixteenth-century
emperor of Kanem-Bornu is said to have had horses with golden bits and hounds
with golden chains. Basil Davidson
writes about Kanem Bornu:
“Three main periods
may be distinguished in Kanem history. There is the early period of formation
when the Kanembu under their early chiefs were striving for leadership in the
grassland country around Lake Chad. With the eleventh-century conversion of
the Sefuwa to Islam, there comes an increasing involvement in the trade of
the region, together with a succesful effort at establishing a single overall
system of law and order throughout a wide region of trade and pasture. This
is the period of the 'old empire' based on Kanem to the east of Lake Chad. It
collapses in the fifteenth century with the rebellion of some of its subject
peoples, notably the Bulala, and there follows a time of confusion while
sovereignties are violently contested. This terminates with the rise of a new
empire whose main seat of power has
shifted west of the lake, and lies in the land of Bornu. In 1571,
after many adventures, the greatest of all the kings or mais of Kanem-Bornu, Idris Alooma, at last comes into his rights
and launches upon a grand career of political achievement that was
contemporary with the reign of England's Queen Elizabeth. Idris Alooma unites
the whole grassland country from the borders of Darfur in the east, and
perhaps Darfur itself, to the kingdoms of eastern Hausaland; maintains
diplomatic missions in Tripoli and Cairo; exchanges gifts with the Ottoman
Sultan in Istanbul; and rules as the most succesful West African monarch of
his day.” 
versions of the arms of Organa after the Book of Knowledge. The left (from
Ms. S.) follows the portolan of Angelino Dulcerto. The right (from Ms.N) is
decribed in the text and is a variant of the Dulcerta arms. Later versions
are the Dulcerta version.
Kanem Bornu may be identical
with mediaeval Organa, as mentioned on the map of Angelino Dulcerta
(1339), by The Book of Knowledge (Libro de Conoscimiento) and some
14th and 15th century portolans. On the map of Angelino Dulcerta there is a
picture of a city called Regnum de Organa from which a white flag is
flown with a green palmtree. This flag
is modified by The Book of Knowledge in which is written: The King of organa has for his device a white
flag with a green palm tree and two keys. 
The Dulcerta version is repeated again by the Atlas Catalan, today in the Bibliothèque National in Paris. On this portolan a king is depicted, togeher with a city called Organa (ciutat Organa) from which a flag is flown, showing a green palmtree. The king himself, dressed in blue and with a white turban on his head, is sitting beside it , armed with a broadsword and a shield with a crescent between three bosses, all gold on a red field.
The city of Organa and a king
in the Atlas Catalan, ca 1375.
of the facsimile in the Maritime Museum of Barcelona.
The same part of North Africa
is depicted on the map of Gabriel de Vallseca from 1439:
On this portolan the flag
with the palmtree has disappeared. The king is now sitting on a carpet and is
dressed in green with a red turban. He is armed with a broadsword and a blue
shield of fifteenth-century Moroccan shape,
with four golden symbols.
Above his head is a golden banner with a white crescent. 
disappeared in the beginning of the 18th century. 
Starting from Congo the
French conquered the region by and by. They reached the river Shari in 1894.
At the Berlin Conference of 1899 it was decided that Tibesti, Kanem, Wadai
and Abesehr and Borku would be french territories. The region was
incorporated in Afrique Equatoriale Française on 15 January 1910.
Tchad became an autonomous
republic within the Communauté Française on 28 November 1958. It became an
independent republic with the name of “République du Tchad” on 11 August
1960. Capital: N'Djamena (until 4 September 1973: Fort Lamy /Fort
The seal of the republic
shows the bust of a woman from Tchad, looking to the right (sinister).
Legend: republique du tchad ó
unité . travail . progrès
ó. (Unity, Work, Progress)
The flag, adopted 6 November
1959 is of the national colours blue, yellow and red in three vertical
stripes. They symbolize the sky, life and hope, of the sun as the creator of
life, and of the fire of the unirty of the state. The colours reappear in the
national achievement. This was designed by the secretary of the International
Academy of Heraldry, Hervé Pinoteau and is inspired by an idea of G. Eynde.
The achievement was printed on coins to the memory of the first anniversary
of the Republic in 1970. No legislation about the achievement is known. It
Arms: Barry indented of eight
pieces Or and Azure.
Crest: A rising sun radiant
National du Chad
Supporters: D.: A mouflon (Ovis musimon - Bovidæ) Or,
on his manes an arrow Gules; S.: A lion Or, on his manes an arrow Gules.
progres , between and separated by
arrows Gules, in red lettering on a listel Or.
The red arrow is the symbol
of the Chadian National Union (Union Nationale
Tchadienne or UNT) a radical Muslim political party founded in 1958 by
Issa Dana, but now extict.
ð See illustration in the head of this essay.
Cross of the National Order
© Hubert de Vries 2008.12.18
) Davidson, Basil: Africa in History. Frogmore St. Albans. Hert. 1974. pp. 96-97.
) Book of the Knowledge of all the kingdoms,
lands, and lordships that are in the world. (ca 1350). Works issued by the
Hakluyt Society. 2nd series N° XXIX. 1912., p. 31, fig 64.
 ) Museu Marítim de Barcelona. In North Africa there are six kingsdepicted: 1. Rex Bubeder; 2. Rex Musameli; 3. Rex Organa; 4. Rex Dnubie; 5. Lo Solda; 6. Desgreliona (?). These kings could have been the rulers of Mali, Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, Nubia, Egypt en Ethiopia.
 ) The heir of this empire, the Shehu of Bornu, Al Hadj Nimar el Kanemi, nowadays lives in Nigeria. His portrait in Lainé, D.: African Kings. Berkely, 2000. p. 40.