Back to Turkey
1204, two grandsons of Andronicus I Comnenus rebelled against the Angeli and
conquered most of the anatolian coast, taking advantage of the confusion caused
by the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders. However, they were
defeated by the Laskarids of Nicaia and had to give up their claim to the
Byzantine throne when Michael VIII conquered Constantinople in 1261. In 1282,
Michael VIII the Great Komnenos forced John II to surrender his byzantine
titles, and from that time the prince of Trebizonde called himself
"Emperor and ruler of the entire East, Iberia and Perateia, the Great
time, a golden double eagle appears on a red field as a symbol of Trebizonde.
The oldest mention is in the role of Wijnbergen in which the weapons of the
Latin and Byzantine emperors are also depicted. Further sources are the
nautical charts from the 14th and 15th centuries on which Trebizonde always
has a flag with the double eagle on a red cloth.
double eagle for Trebizonde also appears in literature. There is a
chrysobulla from Alexius III on which the robe's robe is adorned with double
eagles. Ulrich Richental also gives the arm s with the golden double eagle on
red for two princes from Trebizonde who were present at the Council of
of this eagle is shared by the Komnenen with the despots of Epirus and Mistra
who had also claimed the byzantine imperial title for themselves. The epirotic
approximately at the same time as that of the Komnenes. The one from Mistra appears
later in the 14th century. It can therefore be suspected that these three
princes were simultaneously "aligned" by Michael VIII and thereby
assigned a high rank in the Byzantine hierarchy (hereditary?).The sultan of
Ikonion also carried a golden double eagle on red in the 13th century.
under the title "Die Keyser v Troppezunt", the authoritative
weapons book of the Heraut Gelre gives a completely different weapon, namely
Hermelijn with two blue bars and in a free quarter the weapon of the Latin
emperors of Byzantium. Undoubtedly this is a confusion, but it is not
possible to figure out (for the time being). It is probably that we have to
search among the allies of the titular emperors of Byzantium, Robert and
Philip of Anjou-Tarente and Jacques of Baux.
years after the fall of Constantinople the 21st Comnenus, David, surrendered
the city to the Ottoman Sultan Muhammad II on 15 August 1461. Some parts
however still resisted until 1478 and the
interior was difficult to submit. From this time a peculiar coat of arms is
given by Conrad Grüneberg „Der kaiser von Trappesod stost an Kriechen vnd an
das Kaisertum von Athen. Hat
yetzn der turgisch kaiser gewunnen und den kaiser
fell eight years after the fall of Constantinople on August 15, 1461 when the
21st Komnenus, David, surrendered the city to Sultan Mohammed II. Some areas
continued to resist until 1478 and the interior was difficult to subdue. A
special weapon given by Conrad Grüneberg dates from this period.
the Ottoman Empire, Trebizonde was an eyâlet
under a beylerbeyi. The Traâzon eyâlet is mentioned for the first time in
1511.] In 1559 the Portuguese cartographer Diogo Homem gave a flag for
Trabzon on a map of the Black Sea. This is light blue with a kidney-shaped
symbol between four crescents. A map of Georgio Sideri from 1565 of roughly
the same area, but without Trabzon, displays such flags as a crescent between
five balla and this corresponds to the later use of flags for the beylerbeyis
of the Ottoman eyâlets. ]
1665 the Matzouken tried to conquer the city and the so-called
"Christians from the interior" fought for a long time for their
freedom of religion, which they received in 1911.
the Russian occupation of 1916 –‘18, the administration was taken over by
Chrysanthos, the Metropolitan of Trebizonde, who also wanted to found a
Pontic Republic. Probably in this time the façade of the Hagia Sophia was
restored and a nimbused eagle was sculpured on the top.
Hagia Spohia, Trabzon
Republic of Pontus existed from 1917 to 1919 but was never really proclaimed.
The capital was Trabzon and the emblem consisted of an eagle The golden double
eagle on a red field ended up in the arms of the Republic of Armenia. In
1922, Chrysanthos was forced to send 164,000 Pontic Christians to Greece
during an exchange of the population. The exodus of these Christians
certainly went on until the 80s of the 20th century.
of Pontus was a proposed Pontian Greek state in the north-eastern part of
modern Turkey from 1917 to 1922. The Republic of Pontus was never officially
proclaimed, but a central government of an embryonic state existed, though
not occupying all the claimed areas. The Pontian Greeks rebelled against the
Ottoman Empire during the First World War, under the leadership of
Chrysanthus, Metropolitan of Trebizond. In 1917 Greece and the Entente powers
considered the creation of a Hellenic autonomous state in Pontus, most likely
as part of a Ponto-Armenian Federation. In 1919 on the fringes of the Paris
Peace Conference Chrysanthos proposed the establishment of a fully
independent Republic of Pontus, but neither Greece nor the other delegations
collapse of the Greek front in Asia Minor during the Greco-Turkish War the
plan of a fully independent state in the region collapsed, and the subsequent
Greek-Turkish population exchange removed the Pontic Greeks from their
homeland and resettled them in Greece (chiefly in Macedonia).
The "Tylene 500" Irregular force carried this version
of the Greek Pontus Republic flag
1916-1923 the Greek Orthodox population then living in the eastern Black Sea
region of Turkey were subjected to harsh treatment by the Turkish
authorities. Those that could escaped to Greece. A Paulovian volunteer
battalion called the “Tylene 500”, sailed to the region in 1918 with noble
intent and a desire to help defend the infant Greek Pontus Republic
(1917-1919). This action was specifically against Prince Alexander's orders.
However, the irregular unit was quickly destroyed by Turkish forces within a
week of landing. The divided loyalty of the Tylene Islands led to their
transfer to Greece in 1920 in exchange for the smaller and less
strategic Andreas Islands. Tylene inhabitants wishing to retain their
Paulovian nationality were transferred to their new home.
Kaikaus of Ikonion forced Alexis of Trabzon to pay tribute.
Andronicus I, Gidos
Johan I Axouchos
1272 ca Roll of arms Wijnbergen nr. 1298: le.Roi dalexandre. gules a
two-headed eagle Or, billed and clawed Azure.
Michael III of Byzantium compelled John II to abandon his byzantine
(imperial) titles and from that ime on the ruler of Trabzon called himself
“Emperor and ruler of all of the East, Iberia and Perateia, the Great
(Georgia) was never conquered by the Komnenes and Perateia (Southern Krim)
was only in the 13th century for a short time in their hands
territory consisted of a strip of the Black Sea coast with the cities Cerasus
(Giresun), Tripolis (Tirebolu) and Rhizaion (Rize).
ca. (Petrus Vesconte or Mario Sanudo): Gules, a
two-headed eagle Or
Vesconte, Mappa Mundi 1321
of 1339, Angelino Dulcerta: Trabzon: Gules, a two-headed eagle Or
fol 105 ro
1486 Die Keyser v Troppezunt: d'hermines a
2 fasces d'azur au fr. quartier de Constantinople (=1484) [Alexis III
Gelre Armorial there are no arms with two-headed eagles.
1385 (GS): Trabzon: Rood, een
gouden dubbele adelaar.
Chrysobulla of Alexius II. His empress dressed in red, strewn with
two-headed golden eagles
Munt met een dubbele adelaar.
Ulrich Richental: Chronik des
Konzils zu Konstantz 1414-1418
Fol. 135b: Hertzog Philipp von Tropy in kriechen
selb ze Costentz: Rood, een gouden dubbele adelaar. Kroon: 5 fleurons.
Fol. 136: Hertzog Michel von Tropy uss kriechen
syn voz och ze Costentz.
1456 (JB): Trabzon: Rood, een
gouden dubbele adelaar
Fall of Trabzon, 1461. Turkish rule until present
the fall of Trabzon some coats of arms were ascribed to it. In 1478 Alonso de Torres (in: Martin de Riquer: Heraldica Castellana) thinks: Nr. 407:
El enperador de Trapesondas. Traya por
armas de plata con cuatro fasas negras y con un cuartel de Constantynobla. (Argent, four fesses Sabel and a quarter of
Constantinople, which is desribed in n° 408. as: El enperador de
Costantynopla. Trae de colorado con una cruz de oro y en cada un cuartel un
fyrmal de oro y más cuatro cruzetas de oro recruzetadas.
coat of arms of a golden two-headed eagle on a red field is by the same
author ascribed to n°. 427: El rrey de
Por de Rromania. Trae de gulas con el agila de oro de dos cabeças. = Arms: Gules, a two-headed
Conrad Grüneberg in his „Wappenbuch” a quite a different coat of arms is
ascribed to the Emperor of Trabzon This is:
a basilisk Or, blled, combed, clawed and jellooped Gules. . The legend reads::
„Der kaiser von Trappesod stost an Kriechen vnd an das Kaisertum von
Athen. Hat yetzn der turgisch kaiser gewunnen und den kaiser geköpft”.(The
emperoro of Trebisonde borders with Greece and with the empire of Athens, has
been vanquished by the Turkish emperor and beheaded.
the history of Trabzon and his emperor by Grüneberg may be true, the coat of
arms given are not of Trabzon but of Kazan
te conquest the flags as given by the portolanes is of Ottomna design,
showing a crescent
Detail of a map of Diogo Homem,
1559. Part of Asia Minor. In the lower right corner: „trapesonda
Trabzon on the Portolan of Georgio Sideri, 1565
Sinope in the easternmost part of Trabzon is a banner with a moor’s head on
the map of Petrus Vesconte. The moor’s head retrun at Ulrich Richental fo 130 b and is
Arnent a but oa moor with black scarf.
And a crown of 3
leaves and 2 pearls. L. : Rex Zaldachie ist och under den grossen Khan. (=
© Hubert de Vries © Hubert de Vries 2011-07-05;Updated