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Early Arms

The Republic

National Arms

Great Seal

Presidential Sash & Jewel

Armed Forces




The territory of present Bolivia was a part of the Vice-Kingdom of Peru named Upper-Peru. In 1548 La Paz (Peace) was founded and the harbour-city of Lima. In 1776 Upper-Peru was incorporated into the Vice-Kingdom of Rio de la Plata (Silver River).

On 25 May 1809 the authorities of Francisco Xavier University in Chuquisaca refused to execute a royal decree of Joseph Bonaparte and proclaimed themselves loyal to king Ferdinand VII. Subsequently some declarations about autonomy and independence were made.

After the restoration of the Bourbons in Spain there remained a independence movement in Upper-Peru. Only on 6 August 1825 independence could be proclaimed. On that day a republic was founded which, after the great freedomfighter Simon Bolivar, then dictator in Peru, was named Republica de Bolivar on 11 August following.




Early Arms


As a part of the Spanish Empire arms of the Spanish Monarchy and the King of Spain were also valid in Bolivia. As the Crown of Castile had incorporated the new territories into its domains when Queen Isabella withdrew the authority granted Columbus and the first conquistadors and established direct royal control, the royal arms of Castile became also the arms of the king of the Americas. These consisted of a quarterly of Castile and Leon, surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Fleece and royally crowned.


16th century Arms and Crest of the Indies [1]


Spanish emblems

on a coin minted in the First Mint of Potosi.

Arms of Philip II between 1555 and 1580, Piles of Hercules [2]


The royal achievement of the Indies consisted of the royal arms, at first, in the time of Charles I, supported by a two-headed eagle and later between or supported by the Piles of Hercules.


The achievement of the Supreme Council of the Indies consisted of the arms of the King of Spain, crowned and surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Fleece, between the Pillars of Hercules and with a sailing ship below.


The arms of the Indies were:


Arms: Per pale, Or, Azure and Sable, the piles of Hercules Gules both surrounded by a ribbon with the motto PLVS VLTRA, the dexter imperially crowned and the sinister royally crowned, rising from a sea in base proper.

Crest: On a wreath a bunch of ostrich feathers of the colors.


In the time of Bourbon rule the emblem of the Indies consisted of a picture of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres between the Piles of Hercules.






In 1545 the rich silver-deposits in the central range of the Andes mountains already known by the Inca kings, were also discovered by the Spaniards and a settlement and mines were founded there to exploit them. The place was named Potosi, a word of indian origin.

Mount Potosi, which has played a crucial role in the history of Upper-Peru and Bolivia, was adopted as the most important symbol of the country in 1547. After the proclamation of independence in 1825 it was also adopted by the later Republic of Bolivia.


Arms of Potosi of 28 January 1547.


Ony one year and ten months after the spanish dicovery of the wealth of the Cerro Rico and the founding of the settlement of Potosi, Juan de Villarroel sent a message to CharlesV, together with a gift of 12.000 mark silver, with the request to be recognized as the discoverer of the mountains and the founder of the ‘settlement and mines’ by Emperor Charles V of Germany, King of Spain. By Royal Decree of 28 January 1547, written in Ulm (Germany), Charles V granted the request and also the designation “Villa Imperial” (Imperial City) and a coat of arms.

The main charge of the arms was the mountain containing the silver-deposits called the Rico Cerro  (the rich mountain)

The arms were:


Arms: Argent the Rico Cerro between the Piles of Hercules.

Crown: An Imperial Crown.


Soy el rico Potosí

Del mundo soy el tesoro

Soy el Rey de los montes

Y envidia soy de los Reies

I am the rich Potosi

I am the treasury of the World

I am the king of the mountains

I am envied by kings


In 1562 Potosi received the privileges of a city, independence from the Royal Court and Chancellery of La Plata de los Charcas (Audiencia y Cancillería Real de La Plata de los Charcas, (= Audiencia de Charcas) and the ratification of the designation ‘Villa Imperial’. The act was dated Ciudad de Los Reyes (= Lima), 7 November 1561 and signed by the vice-king of Peru Don Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco, Count of Nieva (1561-’64). On 1 January 1562 the act was executed. As a consequence King Philip II granted the city a new coat of arms by an act dated Segovia, 10 August 1565.


Arms of Potosi of  10 August 1565.


The new, augmented arms are:


Arms: Argent, an Imperial eagle, on its breast a quarterly of Castilla and Leon and in base Potosi Mountain, between the Piles of Hercules.

Order: De la Toison d’Or

Crown: An Imperial Crown



Ten years after the grant of arms of Philip II the arms were changed by the then Vice-king of Peru, Don Francisco de Toledo (1569-’81) by an act dated Arequipa, 2 August 1575.

The new arms are:


Arms: Quarterly of Castila and Leon with an oval escutcheon of Mount Potosi proper.

Order: the collar of the Order of the Fleece.

Supporter: A two-headed eagle decapitated Sable, clawed Or, royally crowned and between the Piles of Hercules

Compartement: A shield Or, inscribed with the motto:

Cesaris potentia

pro rexis prudentia

iste excelsus mons et argentea

orbem debelare

valent universitum

By the power of the Emperor

And the wisdom of the King

This exellent Silver Mountain

May conquer

The whole world

in orle.


It is not known why the two-headed eagle was decapitated. [3]


After the proclamation of the republic in 1825 the arms of Potosi were reduced to the escutcheon by omitting all symbols reminding Spanis rule.


Seal of the Department of Potosi, 1831


The Republic


A national coat of arms was adopted on 17 August 1825. It consisted of four quarters which were blasoned as “two large ones in the upper and lower part and the one in the middle divided in halves making the other two”.


The Decree reads:


"La Asamblea General de la República Bolívar, deseando fijar el Escudo de Armas del nuevo Estado, ha venido, en decretar y decreta lo que sigue: 


1° El escudo de armas de la república de Bolivar estará dividido en cuatro cuarteles dos de ellos grandes, saber el de la parte superior y el del pie y el del medio dividido por la mitad, formará los otros dos. 

2°- En el cuartel superior se verán cinco estrellas de plata sobre esmalte o campo azul, y estas serán significativas de los cinco departamentos que forman la República. 

3°.- En el cuartel del pie del Escudo se verá el Cerro de Potosí, sobre campo de oro, y esto denotará la riqueza de la República en el Reino Mineral. 

4°.- En el cuartel del medio, en el costado, ira grabado sobre campo blanco el árbol prodigioso denominado del pan, que se encuentra en varias de las montañas de la República, significándose por el la riqueza del Estado en el Reino, Vegetal.

5°.- Al costado de dicho cuartel se verá, sobre campo o esmalte verde, una alpaca, y esto significará la riqueza del Estado en el Reino Animal. 

6°.- A la cabeza del Escudo se verá la Gorra de la Libertad y dos genios a los lados de ella, teniendo por los extremos una cinta en que se lea "República de Bolívar". 

7°.- La Escarapela que han de llevar los ciudadanos de la República será bicolor, como sus banderas, es decir entre verde y punzó, y una estrella color de oro en el centro. 


Comuníquese a S.E. el Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, para que lo eleve a conocimiento de S.E. el Libertador, y lo mande imprimir, circular y publicar. 


Dado en la Sala de Sesiones de Chuquisaca, a 17 de agosto de 1825.- José Mariano Serrano, Presidente.- Angel Mariano Moscoso, Diputado Secretario.- José Ignacio de Sanjines, Diputado Secretario." 


The decree is interpreted in Bolivian and other sources as:


Arms: Tierced per fess, the first Azure five five-pointed stars Argent in orle; the second per pale, the dexter Argent, a tree in a meadow proper; the sinister Vert, an alpaca (Vicugna pacos - Camelidæ). in a meadow proper; the third Or, Mount Potosi rising from the plains proper.

Crest: A phrygian cap on a pole proper between two genii holding a ribbon with the legend REPÚBLICA DE BOLÍVAR. [4]



The five stars represent the five parts which were united in the republic: Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Potosí and Santa Cruz. They were all made a department on 23 January 1826.


Soon, after the change of the name of the Republic into REPUBLICA BOLIVIANA and the joining of Oruro on 5 September 1826, the number of stars was augmented to six. A medal of that time shows an achievement of a different design. It is:



Arms: Azure, an oval quarterly in saltire, the chief Argent six six-pointed stars [Or] 3, 2, 1; in base Or, Mount Potosi proper; on the dexter Argent a palmtree proper; on the sinister  Vert an alpaca proper.

Crest: A Phrygian cap proper.

Supporters: Four national flags being of three horizontal stripes red, yellow and green  1:2:1, two cannon and other armoury in saltire, and in base a drum all proper.


Not long afterwards the shield was replaced by an oval charged with the Great Seal, adopted by law of 26 July 1826. (see below)


Achievement of the Republica Boliviana on a medal of 4 September 1831



After the joining of Tarija on 24 September 1831 the number of stars was augmented to seven five-pointed stars and the name of the republic: REPUBLICA BOLIVIANA added in chief on a bordure around the shield:

After the elevation of the Coast Province (Provincia del Litoral) from a province to a prefectoral district in 1839 and the joining of Beni to the republic on 18 November 1842 and during the presidency of Gral. José Ballivián (1841-’48), the number of stars was augmented to nine.


During the presidency of Manuel Isidoro Belzu (1848-’55) the phrygian cap was replaced by a “Bolivian Condor” by law of 5 November 1851.


Article 2 of this law reads:


Artículo 2° En el Escudo de Armas sustituirá también el Cóndor de Bolivia al Gorro Frigio. 


Un Boliviano coin, 1868

Two houses added, the sheaf of wheat and the palmtree corrupted. In base 11 stars.


One of the little houses may be the “Capilla Sagrado Corazon de Jesus” (Chapel of the Holy Heart of Jesus).

After 1870 the houses disappeared on coins.


As there were many versions of the achievement in use, the versions on documents, the flag, stamps and coins being all slightly different, president Gregorio Pacheco (1884-‘88) felt the need to introduce a new design of the achievement for general use. [5]  A decree of him, dated 14 July 1888, reads:

Achievement of Bolivia, 1888-1924


GREGORIO PACHECO,  Presidente Constitucional de la Republica de Bolivia,



Que es necesario uniformar el uso del escudo y de la bandera nacional, para evitar las irregularidades que se notan. 


Teniendo en vista las leyes de 17 de agosto de 1825, 26 de julio de 1826 y 5 de noviembre de 1851.




Artículo 1o El Escudo de Armas de la República de Bolivia es de forma elíptica. En su centro y parte inferior figura el Cerro de Potosí teniendo a su derecha una alpaca y a su izquierda un haz de trigo y el árbol del pan. En la parte superior un sol naciente, tras del Cerro de Potosí, con los celajes correspondientes. Alrededor del óvalo, cuyo filete interior será dorado, esta inscripción "BOLIVIA" en la parte superior, y nueve estrellas de oro en la inferior, sobrecampo azul. A cada costado, tres pabellones, un cañon, dos fusiles, un hacha incaica a la izquierda y el Gorro de la Libertad a la derecha. Remata el Escudo con el Cóndor de los Andes en actitud de levantar el vuelo, posado entre dos ramas entrelazadas de olivo y laurel. El campo exterior será azul perlado."

Artículo 2o El escudo nacional se colocará sobre la portada del palacio nacional, de las prefecturas y edificios públicos, legaciones y consulados, llevando la inscripción correspondiente.

Artículo 3o.- El gran sello del Estado, que es en su forma exactamente igual al escudo nacional, con 80 milímetros de largo por 78 de ancho, lo usara el Poder Ejecutivo para la sanción de las leyes, ratificación de tratados y convenciones, credenciales y plenos poderes de los agentes diplomáticos y exequátur de los cónsules.

Artículo 4o.- El mismo Poder Ejecutivo para los demás actos, las cámaras legislativas, la Corte Suprema el Tribunal de Cuentas y el Tribunal Marcial usarán el propio sello reducido a 48 milímetros los ministerios de Estado y legaciones, sello de 8 milímetros; las prefecturas, cortes de distrito municipalidades, cancelariatos, consulados y jefaturas de aduana, sello de 30 milímetros; las subprefecturas, juntas municipales y demás autoridades. sello de 20 milímetros.

Artículo 5o.- La Bandera Nacional consta de tres fajas horizontales de igual anchura y dimensiones, colocadas en este orden: una roja en la parte superior, una color oro en el centro y una verde en la parte inferior.

Artículo 6o.- Los cuerpos de ejercito usaran el pabellón nacional en tela de seda, llevando al centro bordadas en realce de oro y plata las armas de la República dentro de las dos ramas de olivo y laurel.

Artículo 7o.- La bandera que se use en el palacio nacional, en las legaciones y consulados y en los edificios públicos de la nación, llevara pintado al centro el Escudo Nacional entre dos ramas de olivo y laurel y sus dimensiones serán de seis metros de largo por cuatro de ancho.

Artículo 8o.- En las fiestas públicas y conmemoraciones patrióticas, los ciudadanos usaran la bandera boliviana, sin el escudo, izándola en sus edificios, siendo extensivo este derecho a los extranjeros que quieran asociarse.

Artículo 9o.- Queda prohibido enarbolar en sierra los pabellones de otros estados, con excepción de los casos de sus agentes diplomáticos y consulares.

Artículo 10o.- Para uniformar el uso del Escudo y de la Bandera, el gobierno mandará construir los modelos precisos para su distribución en las oficinas publicas, después de lo cual se inutilizaran los existentes.

Artículo 11o.- El Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y de Colonización queda encargado de la ejecución de este decreto y de comunicarlo a quienes corresponda.


Dado en la capital de Sucre, a los 14 días del mes de julio de 1888.


(Fdo.) G. Pacheco (Fdo.) Juan Francisco Velarde.


And the achievement became:


Arms: Mount Potosi, a sun  radiant in the sky, an alpaca, a sheaf of wheat and a palmtree at its foot, all proper.

Crest: A condor rising surrounded by a garland of olive and laurel proper

Motto: On a bordure Or around the shield, the name BOLIVIA in chief, charged in base with a listel Azure, nine five-pointed stars Or.

Supporters: Six national flags being of three horizontal stripes red, yellow and green on their staffs, two cannon, a pole with a phrygian cap, a fasces with its axe, and four rifles with their bayonets, all in saltire and proper.


From about 1895 a version of the achievement was in use with a bordure parted per fess Or and Azure, in chief the name BOLIVIA in red lettering and in base nine golden five-pointed stars.

After 1924 this became the common version of the achievement, the version with the listel abandoned about 1950.


By Supreme Decree of 1 January 1924 of President Dr. Bautista Saavedra (1921-’25) the cantua-flower (Cantua buxifolia - Polemoniaceae) was adopted as the national flower.


Cantua buxifolia - Polemoniaceae


The single article of the decree reads:

Artículo  Unico Consagrase como Emblema Nacional la Flor de la Khantuta, que sustituirá la usual media corona de laurel, mirto u olivo o cualquier otra, empleándose como motivo decorativo de conmemoraciones patrióticas, civiles militares. En consecuencia, la adoptaran las sociedades científicas, artísticas, comerciales, industriales y de beneficencia, establecidas en el país." 


As the cantua flower was supposed to replace  ‘the crown of laurel, myrtle, olive or something else at patriotic, civil and miltary memorial services’, the decree did not have consequences for the achievement.

Example of the use of the national flower

On a medal to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Republic, 1925


During the presidency of General René Barrientos Ortuño (1966-’69) a tenth star was added in base to the memory of the Provincia del Litoral which was lost (to Peru) in the “unjust war of of 1879”.


In a decree entitled “Bolivia: Símbolos Patrios, DS Nº 27630, 19 de julio de 2004 the achievement was changed by making the bordure Azure instead of parted per fess Or and Azure, the charges now all Or. Also a narrow golden edge was added between the central shield and its bordure.


Art. 5 of the decree reads: 



El Escudo de la República de Bolivia es de forma elíptica. En la parte superior lleva un sol naciente apareciendo detrás del Cerro de Potosí con los celajes del amanecer. En su centro el Cerro Rico de Potosí y el Cerro Menor. En la parte superior del cerro menor, la capilla del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús. En la parte inferior izquierda del conjunto formado por los cerros, una llama. A su derecha un haz de trigo y una palmera. Alrededor, el óvalo de color azul con un filete interior de color dorado. En la mitad superior del óvalo la inscripción BOLIVIA en letras de oro y en mayúsculas. En la mitad inferior del óvalo diez estrellas de cinco puntas en oro. A cada costado, tres pabellones (banderas nacionales), un cañón, dos fusiles, un hacha a la derecha y el gorro de la libertad a la izquierda. Remata el Escudo el cóndor de los Andes en actitud de levantar vuelo. Detrás del cóndor dos ramas entrelazadas de laurel y olivo. El laurel a la izquierda y el olivo a la derecha haciendo una corona. Cuando corresponda, el campo exterior al Escudo será azul perlado.


Æ See illustration in the head of this essay


In an extensive decree entitled “Bolivia: Símbolos del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, DS Nº 241, 5 de agosto de 2009” the national achievement was described for the last time. [6]


In Chapter III, sections 21-24 the achievement is described, its measures and colors are established and its symbolism is explained.


The description of the achievement reads as follows:


Sección III

Del Escudo de Armas

Artículo 21°.- (Descripción)

La imagen oficial del Escudo del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia es la siguiente:


- En la parte superior del Escudo de Armas se encuentra un sol naciente detrás del Cerro de Potosí con los celajes del amanecer.

- En su centro, está el Cerro Rico de Potosí y el Cerro Menor.

- En la parte superior del Cerro Menor, se encuentra la capilla del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús.

- En la parte inferior izquierda del conjunto formado por los cerros está una Llama, a su derecha un haz de trigo y una palmera.

- Alrededor, el óvalo de color azul con un ribete interior de color dorado.

- En la mitad superior del óvalo la inscripción BOLIVIA en letras mayúsculas doradas.

- En la mitad inferior del óvalo desplegadas diez estrellas doradas de cinco puntas.

- A cada costado del Óvalo, están tres pabellones (Banderas tricolores)

- Detrás del óvalo, se forma diagonal cruzan dos cañones y cuatro fusiles, formando una X.

- A lado derecho del óvalo se encuentra una hacha.

- A lado izquierdo del óvalo se encuentra el Gorro de al Libertad.

- El Cóndor de los Andes, en actitud de alzar vuelo, corona el Escudo de Armas.

- Detrás del Cóndor se hallan dos ramas entrelazadas de laurel y olivo.

- El laurel a la izquierda y el olivo a la derecha haciendo una corona.


Which confirms the description of 2004.


Its symbolism is as follows:


  • The condor is the bird representing Bolivia and symbolizes the search for endless horizons.
  • The crown of laurel and olive branches symbolizes the glroy of the peoples of Bolivia
  • The rifles symbolize the defense of the state
  • The axe symbolizes the authority of the State
  • The cannon symbolize the arms of the State
  • The phrygian cap symbolizes liberty
  • The blue bordure with a narrow golden edge symbolizes the lost shore of the department Litoral.
  • The Cerro Rico de Potosi  symbolizes the wealth of minerals and subsoil
  • The Cerro Menor, symbolizes the bulk of the minerals found near the Cerro Rico de Potosi in a literally peculiar structure, consisting of a kind of altar in the silver mountains, on which the Chapel of the Holy Heart of Jesus is built.
  • The Chapel of the Holy Heart of Jesus, built of granite and the bronze sculpture of the Holy Heart represent the cultural heritage of the country.
  • The sun and the clouds symbolize the birth and splendour of the country
  • The lama symbolizes the wealth of the typical fauna of the country
  • The sheaf of wheat symbolizes the abundance of food-resources of the country
  • The Bolivian coconut palm (Parajubaea torallyi, sunkha, microcarpa) symbolizes the wealth of natural resources
  • A star symbolizes fate, destiny, lot and conquest. The ten stars in the achievement of Bolivia symbolize the ten departments of the country. In order of their dates of creation:

·                    Chuquisaca


·                    La Paz


·                    Potosi


·                    Cochabamba


·                    Santa Cruz


·                    Oruro


·                    Litoral


·                    Tarija


·                    Beni


·                    Pando



The Great Seal


The law of 26 July 1826 about the Great Seal reads:


Artículo 1 El Gran Sello de la República será de forma elíptica, con cuarenta y cinco líneas de longitud y cuarenta de latitud; se figura en él un Sol naciendo tras del Cerro de Potosí, en campo de plata; a la derecha del Potosí una alpaca subiendo, y a la izquierda un haz de trigo y una rama del árbol del pan; por debajo seis estrellas en campo azul; alrededor de la parte superior tendrá la inscripción "República Boliviana".


That is to say:


“The Great Seal of the Republic will be an oval of fourty-five unities high and fourty wide; on it will be a sun rising from the Potosi Mountainridge on a white field, on the right of the Potosi there is an alpaca, and on the left a sheaf of wheat, and to the left of thisbsheaf of wheat a branch of a palm-tree; below are six stars on a blue field; and around the upperpart there is the inscription “República Boliviana”. ”


And this charge of the great seal, which was adapted sevetral times, has remained the main charge of the Bolivian coat of arms until present.


The great seal itself evoluated in a special way in that the picture established in 1826 was augmented with exterior ornaments. It closely followed the evolution of the achievement the legend changed, ultimately into GRAN SELLO DEL ESTADO. [7]


Print of 1860

Print of 1851

Print of 1839

Prints of 1868-‘77

Prints of 1927-‘35

Prints of 1924-‘26


The President


In the Republic no counterparts of the Spanish regalia were made. In Spain and many other western monarchies these consisted of a crown, a scepter and an orb.  The royal offical dress was usually a military uniform completed with a sash. Joseph Napoleon introduced the royal coronation mantle, lined with ermine and this was also adopted by King Ferdinand VII.

The President of the Republic continued the tradition to dress in military uniform or in dress suit, also completed with a sash.


Presidential Sash and Collar of Office [8]


Throughout its existence the President of the Republic of Bolivia has worn a sash in the colors of the flag, red, yellow and green. Usually these colors were arranged horizontally but some early presidents weared sashes of other colors or the colors diferently arranged.

All presidents (but for the early ones) however, weared a collar of office of a golden chain with a jewel pending therefrom consisting of a golden medal showing Mount Potosi and a sun radiant above it. The medal is hanging from a bow and is surrounded by an oval frame and a garland of  two branches of laurel all set with diamonds.


José Maria Perez de Urdininea, 1828

José Ballivian


Eusebio Guilarte Vera


Manuel Isidor Belzu






Ensign until 1888 ca. [9]

Ensign 1888-1925 ca [10]


Ensign until 1966








New (2009)


The new symbol of the army contains the Wiphala, the national symbol as described in Chapter IV art. 27 of the Decree of 5 August 2009. [11]


Gate of the Kalasasaya Temple, La Paz.


The head of the emblems of the army and the navy is borrowed from the sculptures of the Puerta del Sol of the Kalasasaya temple, dating from the Tihuanaco culture (200 BC-200AD).




New (2009)


Air Force




Pilot Commander Wings








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© Hubert de Vries 2013-02-05


[1] From: Chifletius, Johan: La magnifiqve et svmptvevse pompe fvnebre avs obseqves et fvnerailles dv tresgrand, et tres victorievs emperevr charles cinqvie’me, celebrées en la ville de brvxelles le xxiv. iovr dv mois de decembre m.d.lviii. par philippe roy catholique d’espaigne son fils. Chistophle Plantin m.d.l.ix.

[2] Patrimonio Histórico y Cultural de la Humanided. Potosi.

[3] After: Escudo de Armas De la Villa Imperial de Potosí

[4] Also in:  Hefner, O.T. von: Die Wappen der Souveräne der deutschen Bundesstaaten. Baner & Raspe. Nürnberg, 1856. Taf. 158, the genii depicted as angels; and Neubecker, Ottfried & W. Rentzmann: Wappen Bilder Lexicon. München, 1974. p. 279.

[5] See for example: http://www.bolivian.com/escudos/index.html.

[6] At  http://www.lexivox.org/norms/BO-DS-N241.html

[7] Pictures from: http://www.bolivian.com/escudos/index.html.

[8] Of Pres. Carlos M. Mesa Gisbert.

[9] From:  http://www.archive.org/stream/ofmaritimeflagsn00unitrich - page/n6/mode/1up

[10] From: http://www.archive.org/details/drawingsofflagsi00grea

[11] At: http://www.lexivox.org/norms/BO-DS-N241.html

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