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The Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Principat de Catalunya; Aranese: Principautat de Catalonha; Spanish: Principado de Cataluña; French: Principauté de Catalogne), from the Latin Principatus Cathaloniae, is an historic territory in the northeast corner of the Iberian Peninsula, mostly situated in the north-east of Spain and with an adjoining portion in southern France.

The principality was formed by the union of many of the different counties which formed the Marca Hispanica during the reconquista under the rule of the Count of Barcelona. The counts of Barcelona were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor then the king of France, to whom they were feudatories (801-987).

In 987 the count of Barcelona did not recognise the French king Hugh Capet and his new dynasty which put it effectively out of the Frankish rule. Then, in 1137 Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona married Petronila of Aragón establishing the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragón (which was to create the Crown of Aragon).

It was not until 1258, by the Treaty of Corbeil, that the king of France formally relinquished his feudal overlordship over the counties of the Principality of Catalonia to the king of Aragon James I, descendant of Ramon Berenguer IV. This Treaty turned the de facto independence into a full de jure direct transition from French to Aragonese rule. It also solved a historic incongruence. As part of the Crown of Aragon, Catalonia became a great maritime power, helping to expand the Crown of Aragon by trade and conquest into Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and even Sardinia or Sicily.

For an extended period, Catalonia, as part of the late Kingdom of Aragon, continued to retain its own usages and laws, but these gradually eroded in the course of the transition from a feudal state to a modern one and the king's struggle to get from the territories as much of the power as possible. Over the next few centuries, Catalonia was generally on the losing side of a series of wars that led steadily to more centralization of power in Spain.

The most significant conflict was the War of the Spanish Succession, which began when Carlos II El Hechizado died without a successor in 1700. Catalonia, as the other kingdoms which used to form the Crown of Aragon, mostly took side with the Austrian branch of the Habsburg dynasty pretender, while most of Spain fell under the French Bourbon claimant, Felipe V. Following the fall of Barcelona on 11 September 1714, Felipe V's Nueva Planta decrees banned all the main Aragonese political institutions and imposed military-based rule over the region in direct violation of the Treaty of Utrecht.

In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times, receiving its first statute of autonomy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931). This period was marked by political unrest and the preeminence of the Anarchists during the Spanish Civil War (1936–‘39). After the defeat of the Republic in 1939 which brought General Francisco Franco to power, Catalan autonomy and culture were crushed to an unprecedented degree; during the first years of the dictatorial regime, even use of the Catalan language in public was banned.

After Franco's death (1975) and the adoption of a democratic Spanish constitution (1978), Catalonia recovered political and cultural autonomy.






The rulers of the principality of Catalonia were the Counts of Barcelona, later also Kings of Aragon and Kings of Spain. For the counts of Barcelona the title COMES  BARCHIONENSIS was included in the comital and royal title.

The first arms known of the counts of Barcelona, princes of Aragon was a paly of Or and Gules charged with a thunderbolt. It was composed of the pales of the arms of the counts of Barcelona and the thunderbolt of the arms of Alfonso the Battler of Aragon (1104-‘34).


* The seal of Alfonso the Battler has been preserved in the Cathedral of Valencia. It was published, amongst others, by Ignacio Vicente Cascante who attributes the seal to Alfonso VIII (†1204). [1] The style of this seal however, is thoroughly early 12th century, reason why an attribution to Alfonso the Battler is more likely.

Drawing of the seal of Alfonso (the Battler) [2]


The thunderbolt (carbuncle) was anyhow a preferred charge on the shield of a bailiff or marshal in the 12th century. When we accept that the arms of Alfonso the Battler were indeed charged with a thunderbolt, this may explain why the arms of Ramon Berenger IV, the Saint (1131-’62) was also charged with a thunderbolt.

On the other hand, the thunderbolt on both shields may be the badge of the royal bailiff or marshal as Alfonso was the senyaler (alferéz / Armiger Regis) of Queen Urraca of Castile and Ramon Berenger of Queen Petronilla of Aragon. That is to say that the thunderbolt was a badge of office, granted at the appointment of both armigeri and not inherited.






Queen 1137-1164

¥ 1137 /1151  Raymond Berengar IV, Count of Barcelona *1113 -†07.08.1161

Prince of Aragon 1137-1161




1157 Equestrian seal: Arms: Pales (?) and studs. L.: [et princebs regni a] RAGO [nensis]. On the obverse the same picture and legend [X raimundu]S BEREN [garii comes barchionensis]. (Arch. Dept.s de Marseille).

1160 Equestrian seal: Arms: Pales (?) and studs. L.: ...MES : BARCHIONE.... On the reverse .... PRINCEPS R ..... (Arch. Hist. Nac.)


Alfonso II the Chaste



King of Aragon 1162/’64-1196


By Alfonso II the thunderbolt apparently was abandoned. On one of his seals it is not or almost not visible but on another one the thunderbolt is clearly present.



1186 Equestrian seal. Arms: Pales on shield and horse-cloth. L.: ……….CIE [3]

Counterseal: Arms: Pales and studs. X SIGILLU(M) R(EGIS) ARAGON(ENSIS) COMITIS BA [rchinonensis et marchionis provi]NCIE  [4]


On the seal of his successor the thunderbolt has undoubtedly disappeared but instead a sword, frankish symbol of a constable, is on the lap of the king:


Peter II




1210 Seal of majesty. The king on his throne with sceptre and globe. A sword on his knees. L.: P DE GRA REG ARAG COMIT BARCE DNI MOIRE ISSVLI.

1210 Equestrian seal. Arms: Pales on shield and horse-cloth. L.: As before.


The successive kings of Aragon, counts of Barcelona usually bore the arms with the pales as their royal arms, sometimes in a composed shield.

In 1443 Alfonso V, the Magnanimous finally captured Naples. At the same time the social problems in in the cities and in the countryside of Catalonia worsened. In this context Alfonso added a pennon of St. George, the patron saint of Catalonia to his crest. This is to be seen on his stallplate at the 7th chapter of the Order of the Fleece in Gent in 1445, which  shows:



Arms: Barcelona.

Crest: On a helmet lambrequined Or and Gules, a dragon issuant Or langued Gules, in his claws a pennon Argent, a cross Gules.

Order: Of the Fleece.


Some years later this pennon was omitted.


Some kings from the House of Barcelona and Trastamare however, were not accepted in Catalonia.

During the Civil War (1462-’72), John II was declared “an enemy of the country” and dethroned by the autonomous institutions, and the Catalan crown was bestowed successively and with little fortune on three foreign princes, descendants of the House of Barcelona on the female side: Henry of Castille, Peter of Portugal and Renat of Anjou. John II’s alliance with Louis XI of France – the price of the ceding of Roselló (Roussillon) and the Cerdanya, later returned – was one of the elements that tipped the balance in a war that caused great damage in the Principality where the oligarchy had to confront popular demands stirred up by the king. .Instead kings of other houses were elected there. These kings were:


Pedro of  Portugal


(Counter-) King 1464-1466


Don Pedro of Coimbra, also called D. Pedro of Portugal or of Aviso was constable of Portugal  and Grand master of the Order of Aviso. He was proclaimed Count of Barcelona by the Council of the One Hundred of Barcelona and bore the titles of King of Aragon, Sicily, Valencia, Maijorca, Sardinia and Corsica (like his rival John II).

On an altarpiece of Jaume Huguet dated 1464 one of the kings of the Epiphany is considered to be him. [5]

No coats of arms are known from him, but it is possible that he bore the arms of Coimbra (being of Portugal with a lambel Ermine) or of the Grandmaster of the Order of Aviso (Argent, a lily-cross Vert). On his tomb-stone there are two coats of arms at his feet but, due to wear and tear, these are unreadable. In any case there is no trace of the pales of Aragon.


His tombstone in the St. Maria del Mar in Barcelona with two unreadable shields


René I of Anjou


(Counter-) King1467-1470


In 1466, the rebellious Catalonians offered the crown of Aragon to René of Anjou, and the Duke of Calabria, unsuccessful in Italy, was sent to take up the conquest of that kingdom. However, he died, apparently by poison, at Barcelona on 16 December 1470.


Arms of René d’Anjou as a King of Aragon

Wall paintings above his tomb in St. Maurice Cathedral, Angers

The arms are:

Arms: Per fess, the chief tierced, the base per pale: 1. Hungary (Arpad); 2. Anjou-Naples; 3. Jeruzalem; 4. Anjou; 5. Bar. And an escutceon of Aragon-Barcelona

Crown: A royal crown of five leaves

Order: Du Croissant


Lous XIII of France



In 1640 Catalan peasants rebelled against the central government. In 1641 the territory was occupied by Louis XIII. In January 1653 Philip IV recaptured it from Louis XIV.


Tin medal with the arms of Catalonia occupied by France

The arms are:

Arms: Per fess, the chief per pale of France and Navarra, the base paly of  nine.

Crown: The Royal Crown of France. [6]


Charles III Habsburg



In 1702 Charles of Habsburg was chosen as the successor of Charles II and for several reasons the Catalan Institutions accepted him. As Charles  III of Habsburg he could hold Corts in Barcelona from 1705 to 1706, but his accession - as Charles VI - to the imperial throne in 1711, sealed the fortunes of Catalonia. Contacts between the British and continental powers and Philip V were immediately begun and would finally lead to the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt (1713-‘14). In April 1714 the siege of Barcelona began which ended a few months later by its surrender.


In the Imperial title of 1712 the spanish territories were included and when a new Larger Achievement was adopted in 1715 the sinister half of the arms was reserved for the claimed spanish territories in spite of the fact that he had lost them forever.

This part of his arms is:

The 2nd quarter: ¼ of Castile, Leon; Aragon and Sicily and an escutceon of Habsburg.

The 4th quarter: ¼ of Naples, Jeruzalem, Navarra, and India (Azure, a lion Argent in his dexter a latin cross Or); and an escutcheon Barcelona (for Catalonia).



Detail of the Great Seal of Charles VI

Philip V



Royal arms of Philip V

As on the Nueva Planta de La Real Audiencia del Principado de Cataluña, 16 January 1716


The Arms of Catalonia


The Principality


The term Principality of Catalonia occurred in the 14th century during the reign of Peter IV (1336-’87) and was used for the county of Barcelona and its territories added later. 

For a long time the arms of the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona were used in Catalonia. It was only in the 16th century, after the rule of of Charles I (V) that the arms paly were called the arms of (the principality of) Catalonia and symbolized a territory and not only the ruler of it. For the first time it was depicted I a german armorial in 1581 (together with the yearly revenues from the principality of 500,000 ducats). From that time the arms paly are accompanied with the denomination “Principatum  Cathaloniæ” and sometimes “Cataloniae Princeps”.






Arms of Catalonia by Martin Schrot 1581. [7]

The arms crowned with a heathen crown

Catalonian £ ½, 1641

The arms crowned with the crown of the granted (not hereditary) untitled nobility


After the dissolution of the parliament the arms of Catalonia became a quarterly of  Iñigo Arista (alias Valencia) and Cataluña (alias the count of Barcelona) royally crowned  in 1754. In 1755 the arms were changed into the arms paly, crowned with the royal arms.


1 ardit coin 1754-‘55

1 ardit coin 1756


The arms paly were reintroduced in 1756 but disappeared during french occupation. In 1811 they were reintroduced again but now crowned with the crown of a marquess:


Arms of the Principality of Catalonia

On a 6 quarter coin, 1811


Arms of the Principality of Catalonia

On a 1 peseta coin of 1832

Medal to the memory of the first universal exposition in Spain

Held in Barcelona, 1888.


The arms of Catalonia now crowned with a ducal crown.


Autonomous Catalonia


When in 1932 the autonomous state of Catalonia was founded within the Republic of Spain, the arms with the pales for Catalonia were reintroduced. It is on the Estatut de Catalunya of 9 September 1932.


Arms of Catalonia on the constition of 1932


Tapestry with the arms of Catalonia, 1932-‘39

Hanging from the balcony of the former Arsenal, then House of Parliament.


When in 1978 the Autonomous Community of Catalonia was founded, the traditional arms with the pales were reintroduced, now crowned with a royal crown.


Æ See illustration in the head of this essay.


The Parliament


The parliament of Catalonia was founded on 26 December 1282 and consisted of three representations (braç) :


  • the miltary, representing the nobility
  • the clergy, representing the prelates
  • the royal, representing the plenipotentiaries of the communities belonging to the king


The extinction of the House of Barcelona in 1410, the exceptional interregnum that ended with the Casp Compromise in 1412, and the establishment of a new dynasty presented the opportunity to increase the power of the General Council at the expense of the sovereignty of the monarch. The changes were specified at the Court of Barcelona in 1413. With its new political functions, the institution fell deeper and deeper into debt and was poorly managed. Its activities were then expanded and a series of conflicts ensued, ultimately resulting in a civil war that pitted the General Council against King John II (1462-‘72).


St. George


After the reliquishment of the Catalonian counties from french overlordship at the Treaty of Corbeil (1258) they came, also formally, under the overlordship of the Holy See as Pedro II had been its vassal since 1204. From this time the arms of the Ecclesia, being Argent, a cross Gules, is also the arms of the principality.

A red cross on a white field has been the symbol of the Holy See since the 6th century. In the 11th century it became also the ensign of the Ecclesia when Pope Alexander II (1061-’73) gave a specially blessed banner to Erembald, leader of the rebellious Milanese:  In publico consistorio vexillum S. Petri Herembaldo dedit eumque Romanæ et Universæ Ecclesiæ vexilliferum fecit”.[8] In a letter of the Milanese to the citenzes of Tortona of 1155 it was described as “Album vexillum cum cruce D.N.J.C. rubeum colorem habens”. [9] In that last year however the red cross was already on the arms of  the Templars and the English and later many other vassals of the Holy See would follow.

Together with the arms St. George, the patron saint of the Ecclesia became also the patron saint of Catalonia.

The theme of  “Rider Kills Enemy” is very old. In the beginning the enemy is represented as a human being trampled under the hooves of the horse. In the 11th and 12th century the human being was often replaced by a dragon symbolizing evil and paganism in particular. After the Crusades this was also applied to Islam and after the beginning of the 13th century also to Judaism. The knight on horseback spearing a dragon, when in armour of the Ecclesia,  became in that way the symbol of the Holy See conquering his ennemies also Defender of the Faith. This Defender of the Faith was personalized as St. George whose hagiography describes him as such.

A knight killing his ennemy appeared for the first time in relation to Catalonia in the Usatges de Barcelona, the fundamental laws, furs (charter in English), and basic rights of the Catalonians, dating back to their codification in the twelfth century. Probably Peter (III) fighting in his father's wars of the Reconquista against the Moors, is actually depicted in his quality of a vassal of the Holy See. This idea however was soon abandoned as the Infante Dom Pedro denouced his Papal vassalage on 17 November 1262 after he had married the daughter of King Manfred of Sicily who, as a leader of the Ghibelline Party, was on bad terms with the papacy. 


Ramon Berenger the Elder in full armour.

The legend reads: «En  R(amon) B(ere)ng(uer) comte  e march(e)s  de Barch(e)lona apoderador despanya» (Ramon Berenger, count and margrave of Barcelona, emperor of Spain).

From: Usatges de Barcelona.  Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial, Ms. Z-III-14; f.6)


When a palace for the government of Catalonia was built at the beginning of the 15th century a sculpture of St. George was placed above the entrance. On his left arm he has the arms with the cross of the Ecclesia and the dragon he is spearing identifies him as St. George 


St. George on the façade of the Palace of the Generality in Barcelona, by Pere Johan. About 1420.


In about 1434 the Chapel of St. George was added to the building. In its vault there is another St. George surrounded by the achievements of the Government and of the king.


St. George and the dragon on the vault of the Capella de Sant Jordi, by Marc Safont. About 1434.


St. George has the red cross on his armour. On the four ribs are the achievement of the parliament of Catalonia and of the Crown of Aragon:

Arms: Argent, a cross Gules

Supporters: Two angels

and of the Crown of Aragon:

Arms: Paly of nine Or and Gules

Supporters: Two angels


On the dexter rib are the crested arms of the king of Aragon:

Arms: Paly of nine Or and Gules

Crest: A dragon issuant.


In 1451 the chapel was completed with an altar with a tapestry showing St. George (by Antoni Sadurní).

To complete things St. George was made the official Patron Saint of Catalonia in 1459. His festivities are on 23 April.


St. George on the Renaissance façade of the Palace of the Generality, 1870


On many places in Barcelona St. George can be seen on pictures and sculptures. A sculpture of him made in 1870 by Andreu Aleu, is on the renaissance façade of the present Generalitat (House of Parliament).


The arms


The arms of the Ecclesia for use un Catalonia were certainly introduced in the middle of the 13th cemtury. Again, early pictures of the arms are from the 15th century when apparently the heraldic representation of Catalonia was designed. Indeed, early representations of the arms not part of the armour of St. George, are scarce. It was only in the 16th century that the arms were sculptured or printed on government’s publications.  


16th century sculpture of the arms of the Parliament of Catalonia

On the Patí dels Tarongers (Patio of the Oranges) Barcelona.


Arms of the Parliament of Catalonia

on publications, 1698-1713  [10]

After the dissolution of the Parliament in 1713 the arms with the cross disappeared.


In 1931 a contest was held for a new emblem for the future parliament of autonomous Catalonia. It was won by Joaquim Navàs, and the adoption of his design was announced in the Bulletin of the Parliament of Catalonia of 15 January 1932:


The announcement of the adoption of the design of Joaquin Navàs, 1932. [11]


The arms of the Generalitat of Catalunya however were interpreted quite freely and different versions are known

A design of Bartomeu Llongueras, also for the contest of 1931, was printed on stamps and were for that reason well known.


Fiscal stamp of the Republic of 1932


The arms mounted on the achievement on the Arsenal 1932-‘39

Banknote of 5 pesetas, 1936

Showing the arms of the parliament just paly (of four), together with a ear of wheat and a hammer in saltire

 (symbols of agriculture and industry)


The design of Bartomeu Llongueras was adopted on 2 april 1981 for the re-established Parliament of Catalonia



The present emblem of the Parliament of Catalonia symbolizes the institutions of the Parliament of Catalonia and the depending branches. It should no be confounded with the arms of Catalonia.

It consists of  four red pales on a yellow oval background, surrounded by floral motifs.


The achievement on the former Arsenal now Generalitat 2012- present


At the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the establishment of the Republic of Catalonia in 1932 the achievement on the former Arsenal was adapted again to the new circumstances by mounting the arms of the Generalitat of Catalonia over all.


The Achievement


Being an autonomous college of Catalonia its achievement consisted of the symbol of Catalonia, the red cross on a white field, supported by two angels symbolizing its heavenly mandate. As it had no military or civil rank the ams were not crested or crowned.

An early representation of the achievement is on the vault of the Chapel of St. George in the House of Parliament in Barcelona dating from the first half of the 15th century (see illustration above). It dates from the rule of King Alfonso el Magnanimo who was frequently absent and at the time was engaged in securing the Neopolitan crown for himself.

Probably in the time of king Ferdinand II who undermined the power of the parliament by the introduction of new institutions with royal dependence, such as the Inquisition, the supporters seem to have been (temporarily) changed. An achievement on the Plaça del Rei in Barcelona shows the arms of the Parliament supported by two griffins, the supporters of the arms of Ferdinand after 1512.


Achievement of the Parliament of castalonia with griffins for supporters

On the Plaça del Rei, Barcelona. (no date known)


Achievement of the Parliament of Catalonia

On the Viceroy’s Palace. Barcelona. 1550 ca


Achievement of the Parliament of Catalonia

On the Plaça del Rei, Barcelona.16th-17th century


The Representations


Of the three braçe of the Parliament only the seal of the Military Representation is known. It shows the crowned royal arms within a legend:

Seal: Arms: Paly of nine Or and Gules.

Crown: of five leaves.



The Tax Collector’s Office


The first step after the institutionalizing of the Parliament was set by the Court in the session of 1289 in Monzón and was the designation of a temporary deputation which had to collect the “service” or tribute of the king. This tax was known as the General (-levy). In the course of time the name Generalidad (Generality) came to be the official name of the deputation. In 1358-’59 the court appointed twelve deputies with executive fiscal power and an auditor general who controlled the administration under the supervision of the president of the Generality. In the interregnum after the death of Martin the Humane (1396-1410) the Generality assumed political power.

The seal of the Office showed St. George within a legend:


Seal of the Deputation of the Parliament of Catalonia. End of 15th cent.



The arms of the Braç Militar (which was the most important faction in the Parliament) were sometimes thought to be the arms of te Tax Collectors office of Catalonia. In this version the revenues of the principality are given as 500,000 ducats.


The Court


The Catalan Court was convocated for the first time by James I, the Conqueror  (1213-’76). It consisted of representatives of the clergy, the military nobility and the civilian population or royal subjects. During the reign of Peter III the Great (1276-’85) the Catalan General Court was institutionalized and had to assemble once each year. It was presided by the king and had advisory and legislative authorities excercised by the three branches: the clergy, the military and the civilian or royal chamber. Although the Generality had played a minor role in the Spanish Wars of Succession it was liquidated by the Decree of Nueva Planta in 1716


The Achievement


As the court consisted of the parliament and the king, the achievement of this legislative body consisted of the Royal arms for the principality of Catalonia, supported by the arms of the parliament.

Two versions of this achievement are known:

The heraldic achievement of the Catalonian Court on a publication of 1588 [13]


The heraldic achievement of the Catalonian Court on a publication of 1704 [14]

This achievement is somewhat embellished comparing it with the one from 1588. The arms of the parliament supporting the royal arms are now held by the two angels of the achievement of the parliament, the dexter holding a sword or dagger, the symbol of armed authority, and the sinister holding a sceptre, the symbol of administartive authority in their hands. Also the exterior ornaments are extended with banners and arms.


* Apparently the achievement is inspired by the achievement of the Aragonese court which, since the middle of the 15th century consisted of the royal arms supported by angels holding the arms of the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia.


The heraldic achievement of the Goverment of Spain

formerly above the entrance of the Citadel of Barcelona, 1715-1869.


In this achievement the arms for Catalonia are replaced by the royal arms of Philip V and the supporting angels are replaced by lions holding globes.


* The achievement of Philip V of the citadel was transmitted to the façade of the Arsenal in Barcelona in 1869. In 1932 the sculpture was adapted by replacing the royal arms by the arms paly of the republic of Catalonia. [15] After the Civil War these were removed and replaced by the arms of Philip V.


The Seal


The seal of the Court showed St. George within a legend:


Seal of the General Court of Catalonia. End of 15th cent.


Emblem: St. George slaying the dragon. L.: S(igillum) : CORTIUM : ET : PARLAMENTORUM : GENERALIUM : PRINCIPATUS : CATHALONIE.


The Provinces


According to the  territorial division of the country carried out in 1833 Catalonia was divided into four provinces: Barcelona, Gerona, Lérida and Tarragona, which exist until present.

These provinces have the arms of their respective capitals, all differenced arms of Catalonia.



Arms: ¼: 1&4: Argent a cross Gules; 2&3: Or, four pales Gules.



Arms: Or, four pales Gules charged with a diamond barry wavy Gules and Argent.


Arms: Or, four pales Gules, charged with a three-flowered lily proper



Arms: Or, four pales wavy Gules.


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© Hubert de Vries 2013.07.17



[1] Vicente Cascante, Ignacio: Heraldica General y Fuentes de las Armas de España. Barcelona, 1956.pp. 414-416, figs. 259-260

[2] Ibid fig, 260

[3] Ibid. fig. 261

[4] Paz Peralta, Juan:  Los escudos de armas del Reino de Aragón.

[5] Jaume Huguet (1412-’92): Altar of Constable Don Pedro of Portugal. Adoration of the Kings. 1464. Wood, 673Í368cm.  Museu d'Història de la Ciutat, Reial Capella de Santa Àgueda

[6] A coin bearing these arms was noticed by Wilhelm Rentzmann in his Numismatische Wappen-Lexicon des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, Berlin, 1876.

[7] Schrot, Martin: Wapppenbuch. München, 1581.

[8] Galbreath, D.L.: Papal Heraldry. London 1972, p. 2. De betreffende tekstverwijzing bij G. luidt: Cam-bridge Medieval History, V. 47.; Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter. Stuttgart & Berlin, 1908. IV. 147 with reference to *Acta Sanctorum, June 27, p. 291.

[9]  Manaresi, C.: Gli Atti del Commune di Milano, fino all’anno mccvi.

[10] Catalunya. Diputació del General, Directori de la visita del General del Principat de Catalunya, y Comptats de Rossellò, y Cerdanya: y capitols resvltans acerca dels carrechs, y obligacions dels senyors diputats, y oydors, y oficials de la Casa de la Deputació, y General de Catalunya..., Barcelona, Diputación del General de Cataluña, 1698.

[11] Acord del Consell de la Generalitat de 4 de gener de 1932. Butlletí de la Generalitat de Catalunya

[12] Montaner Frutos, Alberto:  El señal del rey de Aragón: Historia y significado, Zaragoza, Institución «Fernando el Católico», 1995, p. 156, fig. 68.

[13] Constitutions y altres drets de Catalunya. Barcelona, 1588. Frontispiece

[14] Constitutions y altres drets de Catalhunya. Barcelona, 1704. Frontispiece

[15] http://www.parlament.cat/web/actualitat/noticies?p_id=114102761

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