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The Empire, the Ruler and the State

The Arms

The royal arms until 1234

The arms 1234-present

The royal arms

Lower- or French Navarre


Back to Spain



After the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century the king of the territories around Pamplona was reduced to tributary status. Later the kings of Pamplona succeeded in winning back considerable terrain and the kingdom attained its largest power and extent under Sancho III the Great (reigned 1000/4–1035) and his immediate successors. In the following centuries its territory was steadily reduced by attacks from its neighbours and by dynastical strife. In 1512 the main part of the kingdom was annexed by Aragon and incorporated into the Kingdom of Spain after a complete defeat of the royal navarrese army in 1521.

North of the Pyrenees the ruling Albret dynasty could maintain its autonomy but nevertheless the territory was annexed by France in 1620.

Today parts of the former kingdom belong to the spanish Comunidad Foral de Navarra (1981) and the french Département des Pyrénées Atlantiques, itself a part of the region of Aquitania (1982)






The Empire, the Ruler and the State.


Strictly speaking the early empires to which Pamplona belonged, were the Roman empire and the Visigothic empire, the symbol of which was a sun. The later Muslim Empire of Cordoba had also a sun for emblem, a tree symbolizing its territory.


It is only from the reign of Sancho III (1004-’35) that we have a few  coins showing a square cross on a pole (a cross-sceptre), rising from some foliage that can be considered to have been the symbol of the christian domain. The sceptre apparently was copied from visigothic coins. The foliage, copied from omayyad examples, perhaps has to represent the territory, making the symbol: the emblem of the domains of Sancho (III).


Coin of Sancho III (1004-’35)

Head of Sancho III within the legend IMPERATOR. On the reverse a square cross on a pole rising from some foliage.


After the division of the empire of Sancho III in 1035, the emblem of the domains was continued by his successors in Pamplona, Sancho IV (1054-’76) and Sancho V of Aragon (1076-’94)




Coins struck in Pamplona, 1054-‘94

Head of king Sancho within the legend SANCIUS X and a cross, pole and foliage on the reverse.


Later the same picture appeared in Aragon on coins of Sancho Ramirez (1069-’94) Alfonso I the Battler (1104-’34); of James I (1213-’76) (in Valencia) and of Alfonso V (1416-’58) (in Rousillon).

In Leon and Castile it appeared on coins of Alfonso VII el Emperador (1126-’57). The foliage on a little globe, without the square cross, was later held in hand by him and his son Ferdinand, and the pole cross and foliage again appeared on coins of his grandson Alfonso VIII of Castile (1158-1214).


Æ This is as much as to say that the foliage, pole and cross was a joint emblem of the domains of a spanish ruler, comparable with the globe crested with a square cross in the frankish domains.


The Ruler


The Ruler. In the same way the ruler of Pamplona was the Roman Emperor, the Visigothic king and the Omayyad Caliph who were represented by their official portraits. The king of Pamplona and later Navarre can only be considered to be a ruler when his status of a vassal of the spanish empire had come to an end and sovereignty was attained.

This occurred for the first time at the end of the 12th century.



Tombstone of Sancho VI, the Wise (made 1194-1200)

Museo de León


Of Sancho VI, who was buried in Pamplona Cathedral, a tombstone has been preserved showing him in official dress with sword, emblem of armed autority, a crown, emblem of administrative rank and a latin cross, symbol of religious authority. The legend sums up his name and titles: H SITO SANCI REX PIRENEOR MONEV TOLOSE CIR and that he was brought there by his son: TRANSLAT E H A FILIO SVO.


After 1234 the ruler of Navarre was represented by his dynastical arms. It was however, only at the beginning of the 14th century that he was finally also represented as a ruler, that is crowned, seated on a throne and with the royal regalia in his hands. 


The state


The State was traditionally represented by a crescent in all subsequent empires. It was headed by the head of state who had a crescent and star for emblem. Such an emblem is only known from Pamplona, then called Navarre from the end of the 12th beginning of the 13th century when it appeared on coins.

Coins of Sancho VII el Fuerte (1194-1234)

Showing his portrait and a crescent-and-star on the reverse.


Usually however, the rulers of Navarre styled themselves as alférez, an office which also implied the command of the army. From about the beginning of the 12th century this office was represented by  a coat of arms. Also, the king was only represented as a warrior/alférez until the reign of Louis I (1305-’16).


Ranges of Authory


The state traditionally consisted of three sections: the armed forces, the administration and the church, in the christian iconography represented by a christogram, a square cross and a latin cross. In the muslim tradition these sections were represented by a hexagram, a cup and an octogram or rub el hizb.

From the first centuries of the existence of a separate kingdom of Pamplona we may assume that the latin cross, the square cross and the christogram were also used there. No early examples of these christian symbols however are available.


From about the establishment of the Cortes of Navarre in the 13th century a full-grown state organization appeared in Navarre, consisting of the king in his role of head of state and the representations of the nobility, the people and the clergy (the brazo eclesiástico, the brazo militar and the brazo de "las universidades”), more or less corresponding with the former sections.

From about 1234 the state was represented by the arms of Navarre, in fact being the arms of the commander of the army as a pars-pro-toto.


Armed Authority


Like in the surrounding kingdoms, armed authority was symbolized by the christogram. The oldest pieces can be found in the surroundings of Jaca and Huesca, where the kings of Pamplona and Aragon had their capitals.


A christogram plain, consisting of just a cypher of a greek chi (X) and rho (P), seems to be quite rare.

Photo J.A. Olañeta

Christogram above the entrace of Bataya Monastery


Combined Authorities


Other christograms which can be seen in medieval Pamplona-Aragon are of diffeent types and consist of combinations of the XP-cypher and a latin- or a square cross. 


The first type is composed of a chi-rho XP and a crux quadrata È. This cypher symbolizes combined armed- and administartive authority. In the Pamplonese and Aragonese context it symbolizes royal authority


XPÈ monogram above the entrance of the church of S. Esteban.


A second type consists of a latin cross (crux immissa) and a rho and symbolizes episcopal authority.

This type, quite common in the Visigothic era, is not found as yet in Pamplona-Aragon.


However, the P cypher is the origin of the episcopal crozier of the shape introduced at the end of the 10th century and replacing the former early medieval croziers in the shape of a common pastoral staff or crook. A crozier was the badge of rank of bishops and abbots and of course was also used in Spain. [1]

The picture shows a bishop at the beginning of the 11th century in the Libro de los Testamentos, a chronicle about the history of the kings of Castile and Leon.


Christ and St. Peter with his crozier.

On a reliquiary with scenes from the Holy Bible

Thessalonica, 2nd half of the 4th cent.. 

Archeological Museum Thessalonica., Inv. nr. 10070.


Å Spanish bishop with crozier. 1st half of the 11th cent.


A third type is a combination of a crux immissa and a chi-rho cypher and symbolizes episcopal authority combined with armed authority. This emblem can be the emblem of a prince-bishop or an abbot.

Of this type of cypher there can be seen many in Pamplona-Aragon, but sometimes the bar of the crux immissa is hardly visible or is placed in the middle of the cypher. 

Such a cypher often is the center of an achievement, the supporters being lions or angels.


XP cypher set with precious stones (gemmata), charged with an Agnus Dei

On the head of the tomb of Sancha of Aragon in the Royal Benedictine Monastery, Jaca. about 1100.


At the feet of the same tomb are two griffins respecting, being the badges of Doña Sancha ranking her between a royal eagle and a comital or ducal lion.


Christogram on a privilege of Sancho VII

granted to the citizens of Viana. Tudela, april 1219


Christogram. Beginning of the 13th century.

Above the entrance of the parochial church of Ascension in Mirande de  Arga.

Another one is from somewhat later:


Christogram above the entrance of the S. Pedro de la Rua in Estella.

The construction of this church started after 1174 when the parish of Estella was founded but the façade was built in the middle of the 13th century


The Achievement


Dateing from the reign of Peter I (1094-1104) are achievements consisting of the emblem of royal aurhority supported by lions, symbolizing countal or ducal mandate (i.e By the Grace of the Count/Duke).

This makes it the symbol of a royal college.


Achievement above the entrance of the S. Maria church in S. Cruz de la Seros.

XPÈ cypher supported by two lions

The inscriptions read:



(I am the gate. The feet of the believers pass by Me. I am the source of life. Love me more than wine, you all entering this holy temple of the Virgin)



(Correct yourself before invocating Christ).


Achievement above the entrance of Jaca Cathedral, about 1120.

XPÈ cypher supported by two lions

The inscriptions read:


In dexter chief:


(The lion knows to spare the fallen and Christ those who beseech his mercy)


In sinister chief


(The powerful lion defeats the realm of death)


Around the cypher:


(On this sculpture, reader, you should interpret the following:

P (stands for) the Father, A the Son, X the Holy Spirit. The Three are, in their own right, truly one and the same person)




(If you want to live, you who are subject to the law of death, come here supplicant, rejecting all destructive pleasures. Free your heart of sin so as not to die a second death)


Somewhat later, dating from the reign of Alfonso the Battler (1104-’34), the emblem of royal authority is supported by two angels, symbolizing heavenly mandate (By the Grace of God).


Achievement above the entrance of the S. Pedro el Viejo.

XPÈ cypher charged with an Agnus Dei, supported by two angels.


The Arms


Sancho III



First Division 1035-1079






Garcia III of Najera


Ramiro I


Sancho IV of Peñalen


Sancho Ramirez










See Below

Union of Pamplona and Aragon 1079-1134


Sancho Ramirez


King of Aragon 1069-1094

King of Pamplona 1076-1094

Peter I co-regent 1085


In 1068 Sancho Ramirez traveled to Rome for the papal recognition of the Kingdom of Aragon and to offer it as a fief to the Holy See. According to the agreement the tribute would be 600 mark gold to be paid by Aragon the the Papal state.

It is said that at the occasion the red and gold of the ribbons of the papal bullae were adopted as the colors of Aragon, and should symbolize the vassalage of Aragon to the Holy See.

Indeed the ribbons may have been red and gold/yellow and the Papal umbrella was also striped of these colors. Red and gold however, symbolized the temporal power of the Roman Empire in general and were also used by the Byzantine emperor and his vassals as well as by many rulers in the western half of the empire. Therefore, the papal umbrella symbolized the temporal power of the Pope as a ruler of the Papal State.

At the same time the colors of the pope as a (roman) religious leader were red and white, the white being the color of spiritual power.

Therefore white and red were the colors of the Western Empire as understood as a Papal fief (for example also adopted by Charles II, the Bald (875-877)), and the banners of the Ecclesia were also of these colors.

It was right in the time of the offer of Sancho Ramirez that Pope Alexander II (1061-’73) presented three specially blessed flags, one to Roger of Sicily (1072-1101), another, said to have been white with a red cross, to Erembald, captain of Milan in publico consistorio vexillum S. Petri Herembaldo dedit eumque Romanæ et Universæ Ecclesiæ vexilliferum fecit; and a third to William the Conqueror for his expedition to England (1065-‘66). [2]  No such banner seems to have been presented to Sancho Ramirez.


There may be a slight possibility that in the first years of his rule, when he was only a king of Aragon, which was in fact a conglomerate of several counties and only a part of the former kingdom of Pamplona, he had a griffin for badge symbolizing a rank between a king and a count or duke or what would later be an arch-duke. Such a badge may have been the badge of all his siblings, of which Doña Sancha was one and his brother Garcia Ramirez the other. In any case, a griffin is closely connected with Doña Sancha as it is on her tomb. Sad to say no badges of rank of Sancho Ramirez have shown up until now.


Sancho Ramirez was King of Pamplona as Sancho V. After 1076 the kingdoms of Pamplona and Aragon remained ruled in personal union until 1134


Peter I


King of Pamplona and Aragon 1094-1104


After the death of his elder brother Sancho Peter succeeded in Pamplona as well as in Aragon. He was militarily active against the Almoravids and granted privileges to some important cities. In 1096  After his second marriage in Huesca on 16 August 1097 he transferred his capital from Jaca to that city.

Peter was buried alongside his children in the monastery of San Juan de la Peña, a religious complex in the town of Santa Cruz de la Serós. Later his tomb was transported to the Real Monasterio de Benedictinas, Jaca, where it is now. [3]

The tomb is lavishly decorated, the most important decorations from the point of view of heraldry being a large christogram, charged in the midde with a paschal lamb, two griffins respecting and a battle scene.


Peter I on his tomb in the Royal Benedictine Monastery of Jaca.


The sculpture is a part of a scene probably of the battle of Jativa which he fought with Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, (El Cid) in 1095. Behind him is his son Peter (*1086-†1104), then of the age of 11, riding a lion. His adversary is an almoravid general by name of Mohammed ibn Tashfin and a nephew of Yusuf ibn Tashfin (1061-1106),  who has a crescent on his saddlecloth.


Peter I wears a shield of norman shape on which is a buckle and four rivets. Such shields are depicted for example in the Libro de los Testamentos, compiled in Castile in the beginning of the 12th century. Norman shaped shields are usually blue there, the number of rivets varies.



Alfonso I the Battler


King of Pamplona and Aragon 1104-1134

¥ 1109 Urraca, queen of Leon


A shield charged with an emblem of office was probably introduced by Alfonso I who ruled in both Aragon and in Navarra and, for a short time, was also a commander in León.

On his seal he is depicted bearing a shield charged with a thunderbolt within the legend SIGILLVM REGIS ALDEFONS X.

The thunderbolt, certainly not by accident, has about the shape of the combined XPÈ symbol symbolizing royal authority but leaving out religious authority.


Seal of Alfonso

Fig.: Knight on horseback, Arms: Thunderbolt. L. XSIGILLVM REGIS ALDEFONSI. (Valencia, Cathedral). [4]

Æ By Ignacio Vicente Cascante this seal is ascribed to Alfonso VIII of Castile and dated 1163 when he was eight years old. For different reasons a dating at the beginning of the 12th century is more likely.

In the first place the knight has a conical nasal helmet on his head which is typical for the 11th-12th century but absolutely out of fashion in 1163. In the second place the knight is armed with a spear which also became outmoded in the beginning of the 12th century. In the third place the shield has the large measures of the 11th century norman shields.

Last but not least the knight on the seal is certainly a grown up man and not a boy of eight.

A candidate owner of this seal is Alfonso I el Batallador of Aragon, the second husband of Queen Urraca who ruled Castile and Leon between 1109 and 1114. Only in 1127 Alfonso VII succeeded in defeating him and took power in Castile.


In his will Alfonso left his kingdoms to the three Orders, the Hospitallers, the Templars and of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. The will reads:


En nombre del bien más grande e incomparable que es Dios. Yo Alfonso, rey de Aragón, de Pamplona [...] pensando en mi suerte y reflexionando que la naturaleza hace mortales a todos los hombres, me propuse, mientras tuviera vida y salud, distribuir el reino que Dios me concedió y mis posesiones y rentas de la manera más conveniente para después de mi existencia. Por consiguiente temiendo el juicio divino, para la salvación de mi alma y también la de mi padre y mi madre y la de todos mis familiares, hago testamento a Dios, a Nuestro Señor Jesucristo y a todos sus santos. Y con buen ánimo y espontánea voluntad ofrezco a Dios, a la Virgen María de Pamplona y a San Salvador de Leyre, el castillo de Estella con toda la villa [...], dono a Santa María de Nájera y a San Millán [...], dono también a San Jaime de Galicia [...], dono también a San Juan de la Peña [...] y también para después de mi muerte dejo como heredero y sucesor mío al Sepulcro del Señor que está en Jerusalén [...] todo esto lo hago para la salvación del alma de mi padre y de mi madre y la remisión de todos mis pecados y para merecer un lugar en la vida eterna...


Second Division 1134-1512


The will of Alfonso leaving his kingdom to the three orders was dismissed out of hand by the nobility of his kingdoms, and possible successors were sought. Alfonso's only brother, Ramiro, had been a Benedictine monk since childhood, and his commitment to the church, his temperament and vow of celibacy made him ill-suited to rule a kingdom under constant military threat and in need of a stable line of succession. The step-son of the deceased king, Alfonso VII of León, as reigning monarch and legitimate descendant of Sancho III of Navarre, put himself forward but garnered no local support. The nobility of Navarre aligned behind Peter of Atarés, the grandson of Alfonso's illegitimate uncle, while the Aragonese nobility rallied around the abbot-bishop Ramiro. A convention was called at Borja to develop a consensus, but there Peter so alienated his own partisans with perceived arrogance that they abandoned him, yet were unwilling to accept Ramiro. The convention broke up without arriving at a compromise and the two regional factions then acted independently.

The choice of the Navarrese lords fell on García Ramírez, Lord of Monzón, descendant of an illegitimate son of García Sánchez III and protégé of Alfonso VII to be their king. The Aragonese took Ramiro out of a monastery and made him king, marrying him without papal dispensation to Agnes, sister of the Duke of Aquitaine, then betrothing their newborn daughter to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, who was then named Ramiro's heir.


Æ To Aragon




The title of King of Navarre was used for the first time by García Ramírez (1134-’50) known as the Restorer.


The Arms of Royal Command until 1234


Initially the royal arms of Navarre were the arms of office of the supreme commander of the armed forces of Navarre. At first this office was symbolized by a thunderbolt which was the usual emblem of a alférez, bailiff or commander of the army. When in 1196/’97 Sancho VII was granted the royal title by the pope, this emblem was replaced by an eagle which was the emblem of a consul or military commander of the first rank. When in 1234 Sancho was succeeded by his nephew Theobald I of Champagne, the thunderbolt, usually called a carbuncle, was reintroduced.

At the same time, the (dynastical-) arms of the house of Blois to which the new king belonged, was introduced in Navarre.  

From this time on there exists a difference between the arms of Navarre as such, and the arms of the king of Navarre.


Garcia IV, the Restorer


King of Navarra 1134-1150


García Ramírez was Lord of Monzón and, by his mother Christina, a grandson of Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid (†1099) and a descendant by illegitimate line of king García Sánchez III (†1054). He fought against Castile (and sometimes also against Aragon) for the recovery of the historic Pamplonese territory.


Capital in the Royal Palace of Estella, 2nd half 12th century


He is, probably posthumously, depicted on a capital in the royal palace of Estella, built in the second half of the 12th century under the reign of his son Sancho VI the Wise (1150-’94).

Here he bears also a shield with a thunderbolt, his opponent (or his son) bearing such a shield with the thunderbolt reduced.


Sancho VI, the Wise




Like his predecessors in Pamplona he bore a shield charged with a thunderbolt. This is to be seen on two seals preserved of him.[5]


Seal of Sancho VI, 1189/´93, obverse [6]

Seal of Sancho VI, 1189/´93, reverse [7]


The seal was decribed in the 13th century as follows:


Ymago ejusdem domini regis, milesarmatus cum lorica et brafoneris supra equum cum scuto in brachio, et ense in manu dextera, et eremo in capite et equum cum copertuis anterioribus et posterioribus ut est moris.



The reverse was described as:


Miles armatus similiter supra equum, excepto quod in mano tenet lanceam cum vexillo seu pendone.




Which leaves us to observe ourselves what charge is on the shield?


The same seal in the work of Joseph Moret, 1665. [8]

The thunderbolts clearly visible


Sancho VII the Strong


King of Navarre 1194-1254


By treaty of Tordehumos of  20 April of 1194 as a result of the intervention of Pope Celestino and his legate, it was tried to make an end to the continuing hostilies between Castile and León. The intention of the Pope was to unite all spanish christian kingdoms into one coalition to stop the advance of the Almohades.

The coalition was a failure because Castile suffered a serious defeat against the Almohades the next year of which Sancho VII profited by occupying several Castilian territories. Sancho also allied with Leon which came to be at open war with Castile, Pope Celestinus ending the excommunication of Alfonso IX (1188-1230) to help. Sancho at the same time was asked to ally with Castile and Aragon.

By mediation of Alfonso II (1164-´96) of Aragon  a meeting was arranged between the three kings, not so much to change the alliances but to prevent further attacks of Navarre. Some weeks later,  on 29 march 1196 Celestino addressed a bull to Sancho in which he proposed to make an alliance of the kings of Spain  (regibus Ispaniarum) which guaranteed the inviolability of Navarre and offered the partion of the conquered almohad territories together with a free access of Navarra to its received territories and freedom to plunder the musselmen.

An other bull of 28 May from the papal legate cardinal Gregorio announced the grant of the title of Rex Navarre to Sancho and the recognition of the Navarese monarchy by the Holy See which was pending since 1134 (when the nobility had chosen a royal candidate of their own). The ratification of the royal title took place by another bull (of 20 February 1197) in which Celestino III explained to Sancho that the grant was a special divine favour, not awarded to his predecessors, which made him a privileged son of the church of great dignity. [9]


After this papal recognition of the royal dignity of Sancho, an eagle appeared on the royal seal, on his arms and as a part of his signature.

Signature of Sancho VII on a document of 1209.

Archivo de la Corona de Aragon. Pedro II pergamino n° 325.


Eagle on a privilege of Sancho VII granted to the citizens of Viana.

Tudela, april 1219.


On the seal the king has a shield charged with an eagle on his left arm. Om the reverse is the same eagle. Two prints of the seal are known the first of 1214 and the second dated 1225.[10]


Sanche VII de Navarre

Sanche VII de Navarre

Obverse and reverse of the seal of Sancho the Strong, 1214



The same seal in the work of Joseph Moret, 1665. [12]


The Arms of Navarre 1234-present


Thibaut I (IV) Posthumus

King of Navarre 1234-1253


After the death of Sancho the Strong the people of Navarra ignored his will by which James I of Aragon was appointed his successor. Instead they appointed his nephew Thibaut V Posthumus of Champagne who was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death. He became king of Navarre as Thibaut I.

Because of this irregularity, being not his legal heir, Thibaut did not inherit the arms with the eagle of Sancho. Instead he adopted a coat of arms resembling the arms from the time between 1134 and 1197 when the recognition of the royal title of Aragon was also pending.

This was a version of a thunderbolt on a red shield.

An early representation of this shield is on a statue of him riding on a horse, and dressed in coat of mail, completed with a helmet of the shape of the late Sancho. In front of him are representatives of the people of Navarra, probably of the jewish and muslim communities, paying homage to him.


The people of Tudela paying homage to Theobaldo I.

So-called “Caballico de Santiago” said to reperesent Sancho the Strong at Las Navas de Tolosa

Hospital de Tudela (Coll. Museo Decanal de Tudela.)


Initially the thunderbolt was made of narrow lines dividing the shield gyronny of eight, charged in the middle with a diamond and surrounded by an equally narrow bordure.

Such a shield is for example


Corbel in the cloister of Pamplona Cathedral

Showing a knight on horsback killing a lion (i.e. defeating León). His shield identifies him as Theobald I.


A version on the stained glass window in York cathedral shows the thunderbolt and bordure more robust, the thunderbolt Or and the bordure apparently Argent.


Photo York Minster Library

Detail of the York glasses with the Arms of Navarra

Peter the Dene Window, York Cathedral, north aisle. 13th cent.


On a tomb said to have been for Alfonso X of Castile, coats of arms are carved which very much look like the arms of Navarre in that the are charged with a gyronny of narrow lines, with a diamond in the middle. The bordure in this case is quite wide. The tomb, from the Monastery of Huelgas, is an enigma because it is not documented how it came to be in Castile and for whom it could have been destined. In all probability it has been the tomb of Thibaut I in Pamplona cathedral and was transported or sold to the monastery at any time, for example during the reign of Charles the Noble (1387-1425) who let reconstruct most of the Cathedral at the cost of its bishop. The counterpart of the tomb is the socalled “Tomb of Princess Christina” in the Colegiata de San Cosme y San Damián de Covarrubias which is decorated in the same way but for the shields. Probably this tomb has been the tomb of queen Margaret of Bourbon (†1256).


So-called “Tomb of Alfonso X the Wise” in Las Huelgas Monastery

The tomb supported by (royal) eagles.


On a seal of uncertain date the thunderbolt and the bordure are composed of besants or little discs, the diamond also moved upwards:


Seal [and counterseal] of Thibaut I [13]


Seal: Knight on horseback with sword and shield. Arms: Navarre. L.: X S' THEOBALDI / DEI:GRA[…] BRIE:CO(m)ITIS:PALATINI

Counterseal: Arms: Blois. L.: X PASSE.AVANT.LA.THIEBAUT.


Thibaut II



In the time of Thibaut II the arms became their final shape. This was:


Arms: Gules, a gyronny of eight surrounded by an orle of besants Or.



Equestrian Seal: Crowned knight on horseback. Arms: Navarre. L.:  SIGI/LLVM : THEO/BALDI : DEI : GR(aci)A  / R/EGIS.:NAVARRE/ :


Henry I, the Fat



Equestrian Seal of Henry I


Equestrian Seal: Crowned knight on horseback. Arms: Navarre. L.: X S’:HERRICI : D(e)I : GRA[…] / NAVARRE : CA(m)PANIE : / ET:BRIE:COMITIS:PALATINI -



The arms were blasoned in about 1273 by Walfords Roll as:  Le roy de Navarre, gules un carbuncle d’or. [14]








Å A picture of it is in Wijnbergen Roll (1270 ca), with the legendle Roy de nauarre”.  [15]






Seal of Joan I of Navarre: The queen staning with crown and fleur de lys. Arms: Navarre and Blois-Champagne. L.:  S / IOH/ANNE D(e)I GR(aci)A REGINE NAV[… …]NIE ET BRIE COMITISSE PA/LATI/NE.


Seal of Joan I of Navarre: The queen standing with crown and sceptre. Arms: France and Navarre. L.: “SIGILLUM JOHANNE DEI GRACIA FRANCORUM ET NAVARRE REGINE, CAMPANIE ET BRIE COMITISSE PALATINE”. D.: 1300




Joan II


¥ Philip of Evreux 1328-†1343



Seal of Joan II of Navarre: The queen standing with crown and sceptre. Arms: Navarre and Evreux (France, a bend compony Argent and Gule). L: IOH(ann)A : REGIS:FRANCIE:FILIA […]EN(sis) CO(m)ITISSA


In the time of the Houses of Evreux, Aragon, Foix and Albret the arms of Navarre were struck on coins. Maybe it was also used by the Cortes of Navarra but no documents confirming this are available.

Coin of Charles III, the Noble, 1387-1425.


After the conquest of Navarre by Ferdinand of Aragon in 1512 the arms of Navarre were introduced again. It is on the Triumphal Arch of Albrecht Dürer, cut 1517 and in several other german rolls of arms


Albrecht Dürer, 1517

Virgil Solis, 1555

Martin Schrot, 1582


In the middle of the 16th century the carbuncle composed of a gironny and an orle of besants was replaced by such a figure made up of golden chains. This goes back to the story telling that at the battle of Las Navas the encampment of Mohamed ben Yusuf was defended by a triple fence of a palisade linked by chains, waggons also linked by chains and negros chained together. After the battle Sancho the Strong returned home loaded with these chains which he distributed between Pamplona, the church of Roncevalles, the Great Chapel of Irache and the Santa Maria in Tudela. Since then, he charged the red shield of his predecessors with golden chains with an emerald in the middle. [16]

This story has its roots in a letter of Blanche of Castile, wife of Alfonso VIII to Blanche of Navarre, wife of Thibaut III which relates the storming of the palisades of Miramolin. The story was copied by the 14th century chronicler Garcia de Eugui in his Genealogy of the kings of Navarre (1409 ca) and later in the Chronicle of the Prince of Viana (1454 ca).

In 1556 the idea was adopted by the artist Juan de Villareal. He made the achievement above the entrance of the Hospital de Nuestra Señora de la Misericorda opposite the Royal Palace in Pamplona. This showed the arms with the chains, crowned and supported by two fauns.  Somewhat later the story was canonized by Geronimo Zurita in his Annals of the Kingdom of Navarra (1562), and copied by Joseph Moret (1665) and others.


Photo Flickr

Achievement of Navarra, 1556

By Juan la Villareal. Now above the entrance of the Museum of Pamplona.


Later the design of the arms changed of front fopr a while between the chains and the connected besants

Page from the Libro de Armeria del Reino de Navarra 1557. [17]


This page shows the arms of the kingdom surrounded by the arms of the Ricos Hombres of the Military Branch or the Branch of the Nobility of the Cortes of Navarre. It at the same time is a proof that the arms of Navarre were used by the Cortes.


The arms of Navarre on a map of Blaeu, 1635

The crowned arms of Navarra

on the frontispiece of Nueva Recopilacion de los leyes de Navarra, 1700.


The crowned arms of Navarra

on the frontispiece of  “Novissima Recopilacion de las Leyes de el Reino de Navarra”. Pamplona 1735


The achievement of the Cortes  of Navarra with the crowned arms

on the frontispiece of  Annales del Reyno de Navarra by Francisco de Aleson. Pamplona 1766


After the defeat of Napoleon in 1813 the Constitution of Cadiz of 1812 was also introduced in Navarra, thereby abolishing the privileges and the parliament of Navarra, This was very musch resented by the Navarrese who found Ferdinand VII at their side. On 14 May 1814 he promulgated a law restoring the old absolutist monarchy and its institutions.

The parliament of Navarra (La Diputación Provincial de Navarra) was established in 1839 as a assembly of representatives of the province. In 1867 the Diputacion Provincial was renamed Diputacion Foral.  


3 maravedi coin 1818-‘33

The cross is the cross of the Order of San Fernando founded 31 August 1811

Seal of the Diputacion Provincial de Navarra, 1839

On a charter of Queen Isabel II (1833-’68)



Arms for the Diputacion Foral were adopted on 16 July 1910 after an initiative of 22 January 1910 and deliberations of 15 July.


Official arms of the Diputacion Foral of Navarra

as on the resolution of 16 July 1910


On 8 July 1931 the arms were changed by replacing the royal crown by a (republican) mural crown.



After the Civil War, the royal crown on the arms was restored and the shield became supported by the cross with laurels of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Ferdinand (Real y Militar Orden de San Fernando) by decree of Francisco Franco The cross consists of a cross of swords, points outward, surrounded by a crown of laurel.


Arms of Navarre, 1937-1981


In 1981 the arms of 1910 were restored.


On 16 july 2010 the official arms were redesigned.


Æ See illustration in the head of this essay


The Royal Arms




Thibaut I (IV) Posthumus


Count of Champagne 1201-1253

Blanche of Navarre, regent 1201-1222

King of Navarre 1234-1253


After the death of Sancho the Strongthe people of Navarra ignored his will by which James I of Aragon was appointed his successor. Instead they appointed his nephew Thibaut V  Posthumus of Champagne who was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho’s death. He became king of Navarre as Thibaut I.


The arms of Thibaut were the arms he inherited from his father and were: Azure, a bend Argent coticed Or.

[Seal and] counterseal of Thibaut I [18]


Seal: Knight on horseback with sword and shield. Arms: Navarre. L.: X S’ THEOBALDI / DEI:GRA[…] BRIE:CO(m)ITIS:PALATINI

Counterseal: Arms: Blois. L.: X PASSE.AVANT.LA.THIEBAUT.


Thibaut II




Counterseal: Achievement: Arms: Azure, a bend Asrgent coticed Or. Supporters: Two lions reguardant. L.: X CAMPANIE. : ET. : BRIE. : . : COMITIS. : PA[LA]TINI*.:


The lions symbolizing ‘By the Grace of the Count’


Henry I, the Fat



1280 ca Le rey de Navare, l’escu parté de azur er de goules od demy charbocle d’or a une bende d’argent od deus cotices d’or . (Camden D9)


Joan I


 ¥ Philip I the Fair 1284


Counterseal of Joan I


Counterseal: Arms: Per pale of Navarre and Blois




Louis I (X)

King of Navarre 1305-1316

King of France 1314-1316


Royal seal of Louis I


Obverse: Seal of Majesty. The king seated on a lions’throne with sceptre and fleur de lys. L.: LVDOVICVS : REGIS : FRANCIE : PRIMOGENITVS : DEI:GR(aci)A) : REX:NAVARRE

Reverse: Equestrian Seal: Arms: Impaled of France and Navarre. L.: CAM/PANIE:  /  BRIEQ(ue)  COMES




Philip II (V)

Charles I (IV)




Joan II


Philip III, Count of Evreux 1328-1343


Queen Joan used the arms of Navarre as well as the arms of Evreux.

The arms of Evreux were:

Arms: Azure, strewn with fleurs de lys Or, a bend compony Argent and Gules.


Her husband bore a quarterly of Evreux and Navarre:


Seal of Philip III of Evreux


Obverse: Seal of Majesty: The king seated on a lions-throne. Legend: […P] HILIPPVS : DEI : GRA /CIA : NA[VARR]E : R[EX] -

Revers: Equestrian Seal: Arms: Quarterly of Evreux and Navarre. L.: […]COME[S EBR]O /YCEN (sis) :E[T MAV]RI/TON(ie):ET:DE:LONGA VILLA




Charles II, the Bad



The arms of Charles II are on his equestrian seal showing a quarterly of Evreux and Navarre, crested of a peacocks’ tail. L.: KAROLUS : DEI : GRATIA : NAVARRE : REGIS : ET : COMITIS : EBROISCENSIS. [19]

A coloured picture is in the Armorial Gelre:


Arms of Charles II

 L.: die conic. va navaerne [20]


...and in the Armorial Bergshammer:  Die concinc van Naverne ¼: 1&4: G. a un chaine d’or en triple orle, en croix et en sautoir; 2&3: France anc. au baton componné d’arg. et de gu. C.: un plumail de paon iss. d’une cuve aux armes, cour, d’or, cap. aux armes [21]


Charles III, the Noble          



King of Navarre 1387-1425

¥ 1375 Eleonore of Castile *1352-†1416


Charles III continued the use of the arms of Navarre-Evreux and reintroduced supporters.


Seal of Charles III, 1409 [22]


Seal: Arms: Quarterly of Navarre and Evreux. Supporter: An Angel, at his feet two running dogs. L.: Unreadable. Date: 1409.09.08


The angel symbolizing: ‘By the Grace of Heaven’.


Secret Seal of Charles III 1409


Seal: Arms: Navarre-Evreux. Supporters: An eagle and two dogs. L.: SIGILLUM SECRETUM KAROLI REGIS NAVARRE. Date: 1409.11.11.


The eagle symbolizing: ‘By the grace of the King’.


Blanche II


Queen of Navarre 1425-1441

Regent of Sicily-Trinacria 1409-1441

  ¥ Martin I of Sicily 1403

¥ John II of Aragon 1420


Arms of Queen Blanche

 in Santa María la Real de Nájera (La Rioja)


Queen Blanche bore the arms of her mother and her father combined:


Arms: Quarterly: 1&4: Quarterly of Castile and León. 2&3: Quarterly of Navarre and Evreux.


John II

*1397 - †1479

¥ 1420 Blanche of Navarre

King of Navarre 1425-1479

King of Aragon etc. 1458-1479

King of Sicily-Trinacria 1458-1468

Knight T.d’O. N° 59, St. Omaars 1461


John II was the second son of Ferdinand I of Aragon-Sicily and Eleanor of Albuquerque. His arms were a combination of the arms of Aragon-Evreux and the arms of Albuquerque.


Mannequin dressed in the coat of arms of John II of Navarre

From: Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal. Ms. 4790

The arms are:

Arms: Tierced per pale: 1. per fess of Navarre and Evreux; 2. Per fess of Evreux and Navarre. 3. Quarterly in saltire, the first and fourth of Aragon; the second of Castile and the third of León for Albuquerque.

Crown: A royal crown.





Queen of Navarre 1479

¥ 1441 Gaston IV of Foix †1472


By treaty of Barcelona of 1455, her father deposed her brother Charles of Viana (*1421) and her sister Blanche (*1424) as heirs of Navarre. Instead he proclaimed Eleanor and Gaston IV of Foix-Bearn as his successors and as regent and governor general of Navarre. When he died in 1479, she became the new queen of Navarre, and died two weeks later, at Tudela, Navarre, aged 53.


The arms of Eleonor were at all probability the same as those of her father being a tierced of Navarre, Evreux and Albuquerque. Those of her husband Gaston of Foix-Bearn were initially the quarterly of Foix and Bearn with the arms of Bigorre (Or, two lions passant Gules) on an escutcheon.

After his proclamation as a successor in Navarre in 1455, his arms were augmented with the quarters of Navarre-Evreux but he died seven years before his father in law.


Arms of Gaston IV, 1455. [23]


As a heiress of Gaston IV, Eleonor could combine her own arms with those of her husband by adding the arms of Albuquerque.




Francis I Phoebus




Francis I was the grandson of Eleonor and  Gaston IV of Foix by their son Gaston of Viana (†1470), husband of Magdalena of Valois. At the age of thirteen he succeeded his grandmother after her death in 1479.

During his minority the regency was taken by his mother.


As Francis I inherited the possessions from his grandmother, he also inherited her arms.

These were:

Arms: Tierced per pale: 1. Per fess of Navarre and Bearn; 2. Per fess of Foix and Evreux. 3. Albuquerque. And an escutcheon of Bigorre in fess point of the quarterly.

Crest: On a royal crown a cows’ head issuant proper.


Knight dressed in the coat of arms of Francis Phebus [24]

In a manuscript in the Biblioteca Nacional of Madrid.





¥ 1484 John III of Albret *1469-†1516

Magdalene of Valois, regent 1483-1494


Catherine was the brother of Francis Phebus and also a child of Gaston of Viana and Magdalene of Valois. During her minority the regency was taken by her mother until she was captured in 1494.


She bore the same arms as her brother, consisting of the arms of Navarre, Foix, Bearn, Evreux, Bigorre and Albuquerque, the shield crowned with a royal crown of five large and four small fleurs-de-lys.


Seal of Catherine of Navarre [25]


After his marriage with Catherine in 1484 John of Albret added the arms of Albret to the arms of his wife.

The arms of Albret were:

Arms: Quarterly of France modern and Gules plain. 

Seal of John III of Navarre [26]


His arms as a king of Navarre were:


Arms: Tierce per pale: 1. Per fess of Navarre and Bearn; 2. Per  fess of Albret, Bigorre and Evreux; 3. Per fess of Foix and Albuquerque.

Crown: A crown of five leaves.



Conquest of Navarre by Ferdinand of Aragon, 1512


Æ See continuation at French Navarra


Ferdinand of Aragon


 (2) ¥ 1505 Germaine of Foix †1538


In 1505 Ferdinand the Catholic married secondly Germaine of Foix, the daughter of Catherine's uncle John of Foix (1446-1500), who had attempted to claim Navarre over his deceased elder brother's under-age children. However, their son died shortly after birth, ending hopes of potentially inheriting Navarre.

When Navarre refused to join one of many Holy Leagues against France and declared itself neutral, Ferdinand asked the Pope to excommunicate John of Albret, which would have legitimised his attack. When the Pope refused, Ferdinand fabricated a false bull and invaded Navarre in 1512. Unable to face the powerful Castilian-Aragonese army, Jean d'Albret fled to Pau, and Pamplona, Estella, Olite, Sanguesa, and Tudela were captured. Some months later king John returned with an army recruited north of the Pyrenees and attacked Pamplona without success.

After this failure, the Navarrese Cortes (Parliament) had to accept annexation to Castile, which agreed to keep Navarrese autonomy and identity. In 1513, the first Castilian viceroy took an oath to respect Navarrese law (fueros).

Nevertheless there was a first attempt at liberation in 1516 supported by popular rebellion.


The arms of Germaine of Foix after her marriage with Ferdinand were:


Medal with the arms of Germaine of Foix, 1505.


Arms: Per pale: I. ¼: 1&4: Quarterly of Castile and Leon. 2&3: Impaled of Aragon and Sicily-Trinacria. Enté en point of Granada. II. Per fess: 1. Tierced of Jeruzalem, Navarre and Foix; 2. Impaled of Bearn and Evreux. Impaled with Viana. And an escutcheon of Bigorre over all.

Crown: A royal crown of seven leaves.

The arms are between the royal cyphers of Ferdinand and Germaine.

The legend on the medal reads: POVR LA ROYNE DARRAGON, continued on the reverse: GARDEZ VOVS DE MESCONTENTER (For the Queen of Aragon, beware of being dissatisfied).


Achievement of Ferdinand of Aragon after 1512.


In its second great quarter the arms of Navarre are added.


Charles I (IV)



In the time of Charles I a large part of some versions of the arms of the spanish monarchy were reserved for the arms of Navarra.


Royal Arms of Charles I (IV)

on the Puerta de la Solana, Viana. About 1530


Arms of state of Spain

As on “Las Leyes de Toro glosadas”, 1553 edition


Soon the arms of Navarre disappeared from the royal arms and arms of state. It was reintroduced by Joseph Napoleon but it disappeared again after the Bourbon restoration. In 1868 it was reintroduced again by the Spanish Republic and has remained on the spanish royal arms and arms of state since then.

Æ See continuation at Spain.


French Navarre



It was in 1521 that the Navarrese came closest to regaining their independence from Spain. When a Navarrese army approached Pamplona, the citizens revolted and besieged the military governor, in his newly built castle. Tudela and other cities also declared their loyalty to the House of Albret. The Navarrese-Béarnese army did manage to liberate all the Kingdom, Castile being distracted by the Revolt of the Comuneros at home. But the Revolt was defeated at almost the same time as the invasion, and the navarrese army was completely defeated by a huge and united Castilian army at the Battle of Noáin on 30 June 1521.

From this time on Navarra south of the Pyrenees and north of the Pyrenees were divided for ever.

In the North the House of Albret and its successors succeeded in maintaining their position.




Henry I



¥1527 Marguerite d’Angoulème *1492-†1549


Henry II inherited the arms of his father in 1517. They are on his seal surrounded by the legend:





Arms of Henry II after his marriage with Marguerite d’Angoulème, 1527

Castle of Pau


Marguerite d’Angoulème had been married to Charles IV d’Alençon (†1525) who had inherited Armagnac in 1497. As she had inherited his posessions the arms of Armagnac could be added to the arms of her new husband Henry II in 1527.

The arms of Armagnac were :

Arms : Quarterly: 1&4 Argent, a lion Gules for Armagnac; 2&3 Gules, a lion passant guardant Or for Rodez.


This made the arms of the king of Navarre :

Arms: Tierced per pale I. Per fess of Navarre, Bearn and Armagnac; II. Per fess of Albret and Evreux and an escutcheon of Bigorre; III. Per fess of Foix and Albuquerque.

Crown: A royal crown of five leaves.


Joan III



            ¥ 1548  Anthony of Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme 1555-†1562


After the marriage of Joan of Albret with Anthony of Bourbon the arms of Bourbon, being Azure, three fleurs de lys Or and a bend Gules were added to the other arms of the queen of Navarre.

These arms were on the seal of Joan and Anthony:

Alternating left to right: [Navarre, Bourbon], Foix, Bearn, Evreux, Albret, [Armagnac], Bigorre, [Albuquerque].

Seal of Joan III and Anthony of Vendôme, 1555-’62


After the death of Anthony the portrait of Anthony was omitted and the sequence became:

Alternating left to right: Navarre, Bearn, Foix, Bourbon, Evreux, [Albret], Armagnac, [Bigorre], Albuquerque.

Seal of Joan III after the death of Antony.





Henry II (IV) 


            King of Navarre 1562/’72-1610

King of France 1589-1610


The last independent king of Navarre, Henry II (reigned 1572–1610), succeeded to the throne of France as Henry IV in 1589, founding the Bourbon dynasty.

In the arms of Henry II as a king of Navarre etc. nine quarters were combined in the sequence of the first seal of his parents:


Medal of Henri II, 1582


His arms were:

Arms: A chief per pale of four: 1. Navarre, Bourbon, Albret, Foix. The shield tierced: 1. Per fess of Bearn and Armagnac; 2. Evreux; 3. Albuquerque. And an escutcheon in fess point of Bigorre.


After he had succeeded in France his arms were thorougly reduced to an alliance of France and Navarre only:


 Achievement of Henri IV 1589-1610

In Amiens

Arms: Alliance of France and Navarre.

Crown: A royal crown  of fiver fleurs-de-lis and five hoops, crested with another fleur de lis

Orders:  De St. Michel (1469) and  Du St. Esprit (1578).

Supporters: Two angels


Æ For his arms see also: http://www.henri4.culture.fr/fr/uc/03_04_02?version=accessible and http://www.henri4.culture.fr/medias/communs/images/grand_format/1/396_4.jpg


In 1620, Lower Navarre and Béarn were incorporated into France proper by Henry's son, Louis XIII of France. The title of King of Navarre continued to be used by the Kings of France until the French Revolution in 1792, and was revived again during the Restoration, 1814–30.


To be Continued at Æ France


The arms of French Navarre


After 1620 the french part of Navarre, known as Basse Navarre (Lower Navarre) retained its name of Kingdom of Navarre (Royaume de Navarre).

For this “kingdom” the arms of Navarre were used:


Arms of Navarre.

On a map of France, 1721-‘68


These arms differ from the arms of Navarre as used in the spanish part in that the “carbuncle” is made of chains in a gironny and a double tressure. Such a double tressure can also be seen on the 17th and 18th century royal arms.


In 1790 Navarre was incorporated in the new Department of Lower Pyrenees (Département des Basses Pyrenées), created by law of 22 Decmeber 1789 on 4 March 1790.

In this departement the emblems of the republic and kingdom of France were used by its adminis-tration.

When needed also the arms of Bayonne and Pau were used.



This can be seen on 19th century maps of the Departement des Basses Pyrenées but also on a banknote issued by the Chamber of Commerce of Bayonne right after WWI.



50 centimes banknote, 1919

The seal of the Chambre de Commerce de Bayonne between the arms of Bayonne and Pau

Obverse of a 10 centimes coin, 1920

Showing the seal of the Chambre de Commerce de Bayonne


When the traditional heraldry was reappreciated in France in the 20th century, the arms of the former french provinces were redrawn, in particular by the heraldist Robert Louis. His design of the arms of Navarre appeared on a stamp issued in 1954.



Nevertheless, as former Basse-Navarre is not an administrative unit any more, the arms of Navarre have no official status.


By decree of 10 October 1969 the Département des Basses-Pyrenées was renamed Départment des Pyrénées-Atlantiques, because its inhabitants thought that Basses-Pyrénées was of a lesser kind than Hautes-Pyrénées (!).


Its emblem or logo shows an abstract representation of the Pyrenees and the Atlantic with a sky above. Below is the legend :  PYRENEES ATLANTIQUES /  CONSEIL GENERAL 


Æ See illustration in the head of this section.



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© Hubert de Vries 2013-10-09



[1] Heim, Bruno Bernhard: Heraldry in the Catholic Church, its Origin, Customs and Laws. New Jersey, 1978.

[2] Galbreath, Donald Lindsay: Papal Heraldry. London, 1972. P. 2 Ref.: Cambridge Medieval Hist. V. 47; Gregorovius: Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter. 5th ed. Stuttgart & Berlin 1908: IV 147, with reference to *Acta Sanctorum, June 27, p. 291. The banner of William the Conqueror most certainly also white with a red cross, the cross on the Bayeux Tapestry faded to yellow.

[3] According to Victoriano Navarro González: "De Santa Cruz de la Serós a Jaca". In: Aragón, Nº 226, 1953; the tomb was made during the reign of Peter I between 1096 and 1110. It measures 200Î80Î50 cm.

[4] Vicente  Cascante, Ignacio: Heraldica General y Fuentes de las Armas de España. Salvat. Eds. S.A.. Barcelona, 1956. Pp. 425-416

[5] Menéndez Pidal, Faustino: El Escudo de España. Madrid, 2004. Pp. 164-168

[6] Archivo de Navarra. Signatura actual: perganinos de Tudela, núm. 7. Aquí se hizo una reproducción hacia 1910, que se guarda en el Archivo Histórico Nacional, Sigillografia, impronta núm. 112. Trabscriipción y fotografia en C. Marichalar, Collección Diplomática del Rey Don Sancho VIII, Pamplona, 1934, núm. CCIII y lámina. (Menéndez Pidal).

[7] Archivo de la Catedral de Pamplona A4. Sancho el Sabio y el obispo convienen la repoblacion de la Navarrería, Pamplona, 1189, octubre. (Menéndez Pidal)

[8] Moret, Joseph: Investigaciones históricas de las antigùedades del Reino de Navarra. Pamplona 1665. P. 683.

[9] Luis Javier Fortún Pérez de Ciriza. La quiebra de la soberanía navarra en Álava, Guipúzcoa y el Duranguesado (1199–1200). In:  int. estud. vascos. 45, 2, 2000, 439-494

[10] Menendez Pidal, op. cit. 2004. Pp. 172-173

[11] From: Menéndez Pidal de Navascués, Faustino: "Apuntes de Sigilografía Española"

[12] Moret, op.cit p. 696.

[13] http://www.archives-aube.fr/jeux/sceaux/fichedetaillee.php?TypeRche=3&debut=0

[14] Brault, Gerard J.: Eight Thirteenth-Century Rolls of Arms in French and Anglo-Norman Blazon. The Pennsylvania State University Press. University Park and London, 1973. Walfors Roll n° C9

[15] Adam-Even, Paul & Léon Jéquier: Un Armorial français du XIIIe siècle, l'armorial Wijnbergen. In: Archives Heraldiques Suisses. 1951 pp. 49-62, pp. 101-110, 1952 pp. 28-36, 64-68, 103-111, 1953 pp. 55-77. N° 1271

[16] Zurita, Jeroninmo: Anales de la Corona de Aragón. Zaragoza, 1562. The story cited by Vicente Cascante, op. cit. p. 437

[17] Martinena Ruiz, Juan Jose ed.: Libro de Armeria del Reino de Navarra. Pamplona 1982.

[18] http://www.archives-aube.fr/jeux/sceaux/fichedetaillee.php?TypeRche=3&debut=0

[19] Vicente Cascante. op. cit.. fig. 287)

[20] Gelre, Heraut: Wapenboek/Armorial. Ms. 15652-56. K.B. Brussel. Fol. 66 v°

[21] Raneke, Jan: Bergshammar Vapenboken - En Medeltidsheraldisk Studie. Lund, 1975. N° 3355.

[22] Collection Bourgogne MA000019

[23] Source unknown

[24] Photo Estella.com.es. No specifications given.

[25] Source: Internet. No specifications given.

[26] Source: Internet. No specifications given.

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