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Dayak Besar

Kalimantan Tengah



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Today’s Central Kalimantan consists of the former Divisions Doesoenlanden and Koeala Kapoeas of the Zuider- en Oosterafdeling van Borneo established in 1898. Of this the Doesoenlanden consisted of the landscapes of Kotawaringin, Sampit and the Dajaklanden. It is the home of the Dohoi Ot Danum and Bakumpai Dayak.

In 1938 Borneo Government was established. It was occupied by the Japanese in 1942. During Japanese occupation it was administered by the Japanese Navy. Its emblem was an anchor charged with a cherry blossom-mon (sakura). Borneo was then called Borneo Kaigun Minseibu.

After the capitulation of Japan Dutch rule was restored in the parts of Borneo well disposed towards them. The state of Groot Dayak (Dayak Besar) was established in 1946 with the help of the Territoriaal en Troepen Commando Zuid & Oost Borneo under the jurisdiction of the Commando van de Groote Oost en Borneo residing in Makassar.

Dayak Besar was incorporated into the Republic of Indonesia in April 1950 as a part of Borneo Province.

On 7 December 1956 former Dayak Besar and Kotawaringin became a part of the province of South Kalimantan. On 23 May 1957 South Kalimantan was divided to provide the Dayak population greater autonomy from the Muslim population in that province. It was approved by the Indonesian Government on 23 May 1957 under Presidential Law No. 10 of 1957, which declared Central Kalimantan the seventeenth province of Indonesia. President Sukarno appointed the Dayak-born national hero Tjilik Riwut as the first Governor and Palangka Raya the provincial capital.








In the 17th century Kotawaringin, situated in today’s Kotawaringin Barat (West Kotawaringin), was a part of Banjermasin Sultanate ruled by a Pangèran (prince of the royal family). The capital was Kotawaringin at the Upper Lamandau river. In 1787 Kotawaringin became a Dutch Protectorate. In 1814 the capital was moved to Pankalan Bun (Pangkalanboeoen) and a palace and government seat was built there by Pangèran Imanudin (1817-’55). Under Dutch Rule Kotawaringin became a landscape of Kualakapuas Division (Koealakapoeas Afdeeling) as a part of Sampit region. In the twenties of the 20th century it became a separate region. After WW II Dutch rule was restored in Kotawaringin on 14 January 1945. Eleven months later it became the nucleus of Dayak Besar which was incorporated into the Negara Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia on 4 June 1950. In the NKRI Kotawaringin had the status of a selfgoverning territory.

In 1959 it became the Kabupaten Kotawaringin Barat and a part of Kalimantan Tengah province of the Republic of Indonesia.


Kesultanan Kutaringin



Before the proclamation of the republic of Indonesia Kotawaringin Barat was the territory Kotawaringin Sultanate.

The principality was founded before 1637 by a son of the very powerful Sultan of Banjarmasin. The capital of K.S. was Kotawaringin Lama at  the upper Lamandau river. About 1814 the capital was moved to Pankalan Bun and during the reign of  S. Imanudin  (1817-’55) Pankalan Bun Palace was built and became the centre of the government.

On 14 January 1946 Kotawaringin territory became a part of Dutch territory and the nucleus of  Dayak Besar founded 7 December of the same year.


Rulers of Kota Waringin [1]

Anto Kusumo

Pangèran Dipati 1637-1650 


 Pangèran 1650-1700


Panembahan 1700-1720


 Pangèran 1720-1750


Pangèran 1750-1770


Pangèran 1770-1785


Pangèran Ratu  1785-1792

Dutch Protectorate 1787-1824

Kusumo Yudo I

Pangèran Ratu Anom 1792-1817


Pangèran Ratu Anom 1817-1855


Pangèran Ratu Anom 1855-1865

Alamsyah I

Pangèran Ratu Anom 1865-1904

Kota Waringin 1898 - 1950


Pangèran Ratu 1905-1913


Pangèran Ratu 1913-1939

Alamsyah II

Pangèran Kasuma Ratu 1939-1948

Indonesian Rule 1950-06-04 - present


The 19th century Pangèrans of Kotawaringin seem to have had a phoenix as their emblem of office. This could be concluded from the coach preserved in the Istana Kuning in Pankalan Bun. This shows the head of a bird at the front and wings on the sides.


Coach of the Pangèran of Kotawaringin in the Istana Kuning (replica)


A similar sedan, called Kyai Tanda Lawak and preserved in the keraton of Yogyakarta, shows a complete phoenix  19th c. Javanese style. A phoenix is also on top of the sedan of the Emperor of Japan.

A phoenix is the symbol of a head of state, in this case the Pangèran [2].


The 20th century Pangèrans of Kotawaringin had the royally crowned arms of the Netherlands within a garland on their caps:


This emblem was laid down by Decision of the Governor General of the Netherlands-Indies of 12 April 1908 No 12. and was prescibed for all internal administration officials.

It can be seen on the portraits of the last Pangèrans in Istana Kuning.


The emblem of the present Kesultanan Kutaringin shows a green flag of a sword per pale, a mountain, a fan and a running panther. In base a cypher, surrounded by a garland and crested with a crescent and star all Or on a field Vert.

The present flag of Kesultanan Kutaringin is yellow and shows the cypher “TaLa” of the Pangèran, a sword per pale, a mountain, a fan and a panther statant, all green.

These charges may refer to a legend about the creation of the sultanate.

Probably not by accident the (La) very much resembles the sleeve insignia of a head of a district in the time of Dutch rule.



Sleeve insignia of the head of a district, 1932. [3]ð


Present flag of Kutawaringin Sultanate


For other flags of Kotawaringin Sultanate: http://flagspot.net/flags/id-prk.html#kotaringin


Kotawaringin Barat




The coat of arms of Kabupaten Kotawaringin Barat shows a waringin-tree charged with a yellow-roofed house, surrounded by a garland of rice and cotton, in chief a five-pointed star, on a red field and the motto MARUNTING BATU AJI (Come to me and feel my strength) on a white scroll. In chief is the name KOTAWARINGIN BARAT. The shield is surrounded by a black rope.


ð See illustration in the head of this section.


Dayak Besar

07.12.1946 - 04.04.1950



Territoriaal en Troepen Commando Zuid & Oost Borneo / Territorial and Army Command South and East Borneo


The arms of  the TTC Zuid & Oost Borneo were:

Arms: Sable, two mandau’s in saltire, the blades Or, the hilts Argent.

They were adopted by decision Clg 283/GS/35 d.d. 11-07-1946.


The Battalions Infantry XIII and XIV KNIL, also active in the region, had no emblems of themselves and used the emblem of the TTC Zuid & Oost Borneo instead.


As a result of the presence of TTC Zuid & Oost Borneo the State of Dayak Besar (Greater Dayak) was established on 7 December 1946.


No emblem of Dayak Besar is known but its flag was of three breadths red, yellow and blue.




On 9 December 1947 the 5Bat 4Regt Inf arrived in Balikpapan. Its Staff Company was encamped in Banjermasin. Its 1st en 2nd Company were encamped in Ulin, Pankalan Bun and Sampit.

As a part of the E - Divisie “Drietand” (E-Division “Trident”) these companies had the arms of this Division being:

Arms: Argent, hatched horizontally Gules, a trident Sable and a bordure Or.


Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah



The achievement of Kalimantan Tengah is:


Arms: A Dayak shield Gules, decorated Argent.

Crest: A hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros - Bucerotidæ) wings spread Sable.

Supporters: A mandau and a blowing pipe in saltire proper

Compartment: A gong Sable

Garland: A branch of cotton and an ear of rice, in chief a five-pointed star Or, surrounded by a rope Or, enclosing a field Azure.

Backshield: Gules, edged Sable-Argent-Sable.


The Dayak Shield shows a monstruous head.

The Malaysian hornbill is also the supporter of the arms of  Sarawak.


ð See illustration in the head of this essay.





The arms of Kalimantan Tengah Police shows the Dayak shield, crested with a bat  and supported by a sword per fess and a spear and a blowing pipe in saltire.



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© Hubert de Vries 2011.02.04

[1] ) After: Pijnappel Gzn; Beschrijving van het Westelijke gedeelte van de Zuid-en Ooster-afdeeling van Borneo (disimpul daripada empat laporan oleh Von Gaffron, 1953, BK 17 (1860) hlm 267 ff.

[2] ) See also: Sintang

[3] )  See: http://www. ambtskostuums.nl/frameset.htm: Ambtskostuum Inlands Bestuur 1932, Aanvulling met Afbeeldingen


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