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Former States


I Bangkalan

II Sumenep

III The Sumenep Auxiliaries


Back to Madura


I. Bangkalan


The history of Bangkalan is largely the history of Madura Sultanate. The state was liquidated by the Dutch government and henceforth was a division of the Dutch East Indies and later a district of the province of East Java.


Pangeran Suryonegoro

(Cakra Adiningrat XI)

1885 - 1905


R.A.A. Suryonegoro

1905 - 1918

Raden Ario Suryowinoto

1918 - 1945

R.A. Moh. Zis Cakraningrat

1945 - 1956

R.A. Moh. Roeslan Wongsokusumo

1956 - 1957

R.A. Abd. Karim Brodjokusumo

1957 - 1959

R.P. Moh. Noer

1959 - 1965

Abd. Manan Priyonoto

1965 - 1969

P. Machmud Suroadiputro

1969 - 1971

Jacky Sudjaki

1971 - 1982


1982 - 1988

Abdul Kadir

1988 - 1991


1991 - 1993

M. Djakfar Syafei



As we have seen, the main symbol of Bangkalan was a cakra which we meet on late nineteenth century flags.

This symbol, in a somewhat different form, is on a picture of the the Regent of Bangkalen Division by name of R.R.A. Tjakraningrat (i.e. Pangeran Suryonegoro (Cakra Adiningrat XI), 1885-1905/1918). It shows a six-spoked cakra surrounded by draperies in the colours of the flag of the Netherlands and palm leaves.




R.R.A. Tjakraningrat the Regent of Bangkalan and his coat of arms.

(Photo: Coll. KIT 353 (922) N 46 /TMnr10001734).


On a hanging cloth on the right of him is a coat of arms.  This  consists of  a royally crowned shield charged with the six-spoked cakra, supported by what looks like the two flying fish or (!)  two lions reguardant, and a scroll below.


í Probably for religious reasons the animal supporters are blurred into an undeterminable shape.


The present emblem of the district of Bangkalan was adopted by resolution of the district nr 8 of 1971.  It is:


Emblem: An eight spoked cakra Gules and Or, on a scroll of the first, and a bow-and arrows in base.

Crest: A five-pointed shield Sable, a five-pointed star Or, within a garland of rice and cotton proper.

Supporters: The abstractions of the flying fishes Alugoro and Nenggolo Or

Motto: CIPTA INDRA CAKTI DHARMA in red lettering on a white scroll

Compartment: A lotus-shaped ambasadors shield per fess light and dark blue surrounded by a bordure Sable.

Title: BANGKALAN in yellow lettering on a black cartouche.


II Sumenep


The VOC gained control over Sumenep in East Madura by default when Sumenep placed itself under the Company's protection in 1705. From then on, the Company was able to appoint local rulers and demand an annual tax, but it showed little further interest in this remote spot. From an economic perspective it was of little interest and so the VOC saw no need to station staff here permanently.



ca.1400  Sumenep or Purwareja state founded

Tirta Negara II Natakusuma I

Pangeran 1767-1812

Adipati Natakusuma II

Panembahan 1812-1825


Sultan 1825-1854

Natakusuma III

Panembahan 1854-1879

1879 state liquidated by the Dutch colonial government

Pangeran Ario Paku Nataningrat

Regent 1879-1883


Adipati Natakusuma II

Panembahan 1812-1825





Letter head of the crowned name of Panembahan Natakusuma II of Sumenep

supported by two cornucopia-like ornaments.

(Farewell letter from the Panembahan of Sumenep to Raffles, 1816. B.L. Add. 45273, f 28v-29r)


The Panembahan Nata Kusuma of Sumenep was an erudite and learned man, evidently on good terms with Raffles, and one of the informants for Raffles’ The History of Java. [1]

This is the oldest known quasi-heraldic arrangement of a ruler of Sumenep. The roses are apparently of a British inspiration.


The achievement of Sumenep is also inspired by English models but it has probably been adopted in the time of Dutch rule as a crown of the Dutch royal crown is used as a crest. It is:


Arms: ¼ per saltire Gules and Azure, in chief seven 4- pointed stars and a crescent Or; in base a tree proper, in dexter flank a hand Or keeping a sword upright proper, and in sinister flank  three houses Or. Over all in nombril point a golden suit of armour with a helmet looking to the dexter.

Crown: A Royal crown.

Suppporters: Dexter a winged snake Gules and sinister a winged horse Sable.[2]

Garland: Leaves of palm and hibiscus-flowers or roses proper.




The explanation of the achievement, given by the Regent of Sumenep in about 1939 is as follows: [3]


1. The Suit of Armour is the symbol of armed power.

2. The Seven Stars and the Crescent symbolize the prophecy that Sumenep was to be ruled by seven princes from the House of Bendhara Saut, a prophecy that was fulfilled by the rule of the late Regent Prabuwinoto (1925-’28).

3. The Sabre symbolizes the duty of the Ruler to guard against the bad actions of different communities and that the ruler has to be strictly honest without respect of persons.

4. The Houses symbolize a keraton or palace

5. The Waringin symbolizes the duty of the ruler to protect his subjects against sickness and starvation. Itv was chosen because the waringin (Ficus benjamina - Moraceæ) protects man against the sun and nourishes many kinds of birds.

6. The Crown is the symbol of Royal dignity and power.

7. The Winged Snake. Bendhara Saut, the founder of the ruling house of Sumenep lived an ascetic life when he was young. This is called the tapa-life. During this tapa Bendhera Saut had received a dagger or golok in the form of a winged snake, in fact a winged iguana (Mal.: biawak, Madurese: barakaj or bhanjabak). This golok was called Si (Kiai) Bhanjabak and nowadays belongs to one of his descendants in Sumenep. The iguana is a symbol of the punishment of evildoers.

8. The Winged Horse. According to a legend this mount belonged to one of the most powerful rulers of Sumenep called Joko tolè or Kiai Kuda Panulè. He rode this horse when he was at war with a prince from India who had a flying ship as a mount. This war was won by Kiai Kuda Panulè. His descendants ruled over Sumenep. His last descendant was a princess called Ratu Tirtonegoro who married Bendhara Saut, a son of Kiai Abdullah of Batuampar Sumenep desa.

Bendhara Saut later called himself Tumenggung Tirtonegoro.

9. The Roses symbolize the duty of the ruler to be good and noble against acquintances as well as strangers. From far away they have a beautiful color and a nice smell when approached.





An (older?) version of this achievement of an uncertain date and origin is known of which the shield is charged with a crowned lion only. Crown and supporters as before:



Achievement of Sumenep of unknown date and origin.  [4]




Kabupaten Sumenep


The present coat of arms of the city of Sumenep was adopted in 1965. It is:



Arms: Vert, the winged horse Si Mega Or, in base a white scroll with the name SUMEKAR in red lettering.


By decree: SK DPRD-GR  Tanggal 25 Mei 1965 No: 3/II/20DPRD-DR/65/2820


The Sumenep Auxiliaries


The Sumenep Auxiliaries (De Sumenapsche Hulptroepen) was an armed corps of the Sultan of Sumenap and came to be a part of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army. It was deployed amongst others in the Padri-wars (1835-) and at  the siege of Bonjol (1837). From this corps some flags have been preserved in the Museum voor Volkenkunde in Leiden. Probably they came in possession of the museum after the liquidation of Sumenep in 1879 and when the Barisan Commands were placed under Governmental jurisdiction in 1882. [5]


The first flag is the flag of the corps itself. It is yellow and shows the achievement of  H.H. the Panembanhan Natakusuma of Sumenep, most likely the first of that name (1812-’25).



Flag of H.H. the Panembahan Notokoesoemo Sumanap

154 Î 136 cm. Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden.  Inv. nr. 370-795.


The legend on the ribbon reads:  Z.H. DE PANEMBAHAN NOTOKOESOEMA SEMANAP. The winged horse is on the dexter, the winged snake on the sinister.


Three other flags are obviously of the Infantry Battalion, the Artillery Company and the Cavalry Company of which the Sumenep Auxiliary Troops consisted:


Flag 1: Naga Bhanjabak

RMV Leiden Inv. nr. 370-797.


Flag 2: Flying Fish (?)

(ca. 95 Î 95 cm). RMV Leiden inv. n° 370-796.



Flag 3: Winged Horse Si Mega

(ca. 95 Î 95 cm). RMV Leiden inv. n° 370-798

The flags show the mythical animals of Sumenep within a garland of laurel and palm-leaves, some flowers in base and a red ribbon.



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© Hubert de Vries 2010.10.08

[1] ) From: Gallop, Annabel Teh: Golden Letters. London, 1991.No. 17, p. 48.

[2] ) On the panembahan’s coach in the Royal Carriage Museum in Sumenep the crown multicolored,  the naga Or, Si Mega argent

[3] ) Rühl, Dirk: Het wapen van de Sultan van Madoera. In: De Indische Navorscher. 1939 (5e jrg.), n°  12, p. 134 & 1940 (6e jrg.), n°  2, pp. 20-21. Der Herold, 1943 pp. A12-A13.

[4] ) Retrieved from Internet: ‘Lambang Arya Wiraraja’  but unfortunately no other data are given.  Probably a cap badge or helmet emblem of the Sumenep army?

[5] ) Retrieved from the website of the Museum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden: Vlaggen

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