It is known that during the period of
Singasari (1222 - 1292 A.D.), the Regent of Sumenep, one Aria Wiraraja, ruled
over the whole of Madura and, together with Raden Wijaya, helped to establish
the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit after successfully repelling the punitive
force sent to Java by the Chinese Emperor Kublai Khan in 1292 - 1293 A.D.. A
captal at Arosbaya was set up in 1528.
Islam was introduced into the Madurese court circle by a crown prince
of the kingdom of Palakaran (Arosbaya, Bangkalan) named Pratanu, son of
Prince Pragalbo. A century later, during the golden period of Mataram under
the leadership of Sultan Agung, a grandson of Pratanu named Raden Praseno was
given authority over the whole of Madura, with the title Pangeran
Cakra Adiningrat I (ruled until 1648). His seat of power was at Sampang. In 1624 forces of Mataram under
Sultan Agung occupied Madura.
Cakra Adiningrat I was succeeded by his son Raden Undakan,
who became Pangeran Cakra Adiningrat II. During his reign the recently
established Dutch East India Company (VOC) began to exploit Mataram’s
internal political strife, which resulted in the rebellion of Trunojoyo and
the forced exile of Cakra Adiningrat II to Lodaya, but also in the ousting
Sultan Agung’s forces. In 1671 Trunoyono succeeded in uniting all of
Madura. In 1680, with the help of the
Dutch East India Company, Mataram succeeded in re-occupying the eastern part
of Madura, with seats of Government at Sumenep and Pamekasan but it lost
Sumenep to the Dutch in 1705. Cakra Adiningrat II returned to rule over
western Madura, with a new seat of power at Tonjung (Bangkalan). He was
succeeded by his son Cakra Adiningrat III (1707-’18) whose rule was ended
abruptly by a rebellion incited by his younger brother R.T. Suro Adiningrat,
who became Cakra Adiningrat IV (1718-1745).
However, because he was opposed to the
Dutch East India Company to which he had ceded much of his sovereignty in
1743, he was forced into exile in Tanjung Harapan and his son, R.A. Seco
Adiningrat (Cakra Adiningrat V) took power. The seat of government was moved
again at this time to Sembilangan. Cakra Adiningrat V was succeeded by his
grandson, Panembahan Adipati Cakraningrat VI, who in turn was
succeeded by his uncle, Adipati Cakraningrat VII (1779-1808). 
In the early 19th century there were
three main principalities on the island: Bangkalan or Madura proper in the
west, ruled by the Cakra Adiningrat dynasty; Pamekasan in the centre; and
Sumenep in the east.
Pamekasan was liquidated by the Dutch Government in 1853,
Sumenep in 1879 and Bangkalan in 1882. Madura became a Residence (Residentie)
subdivided in the Divisions (Afdeelingen) of Bangkalan, Sampang and
Sumenep and with Pamekasan as its capital. From 1929 Madura was a Division (Afdeeling)
subdivided in three districts (Regentschappen) of the same names. The Japanese occupied Indonesia and Madura in 1942, until the
declaration of Independence in 1945.
After WW II a State of Madura (Negara
Madura) was established in 1948 and officially recognized on 20 February
1948. It was ruled by a Wali Negara by name of Raden R.A.A. Cakra Adiningrat
(20.02.1948 - 01.02.1950) and after him for a month by a Federal Commisioner
(01.02 - 09.03.1950) before it was incorporated into the United Republic of
Today Madura is a part of West Java
Province /Jawa Timur.
We may expect a great influence of the Hindu Buddhist
heraldic system on the heraldic system of Madura as the island was for
some time a possession of Mataram. On the other hand Dutch influence should
have been great.
Nevertheless, data about the early
symbols of state of the Madurese principalities are scarce or even
nonexistent. This may be due to the fact that Madura was, from 1743, under
Dutch rule and consequently the symbols of state of the V.O.C. and its
successors were valid on Madura.
The first symbol which points at a Hindu
Buddhist origin of a supposed Madurese heraldic system is the cakra.
This symbol, alluding to the Cakra Adiningrat Dynasty of Bangkalan and of
Madura proper, was reinvented in the 19th century. It is on drawings of late
19th century flags and on the present emblem of Bangkalan. 
As known, the cakra is the symbol
of the universe and the symbol of the sovereignty of the state. In fact, the
name Cakra Adiningrat is referring to this sovereignty and would mean
“Exalted Sovereign”(Head of State).
A light on the Madurese symbols of authority
is cast by the parts of a gamelan set today in the British Museum and a part
of the Raffles collection. 
likely that Sir Stamford Raffles (1781 - 1826) commissioned this unique
gamelan set between 1811 and 1816 when he was Lieutenant-Governor of
Java. Brought back from Java by him in the early 1800s, the set entered
the British Museum’s collection in 1859.
Raffles gamelan set focuses on the ornate great gong. Other parts are
metallophones, for example in the
form of a flying fish, a naga (snake) and a Chinese unicorn (qilin).
The gong stand of it is in a wider Javanese tradition in which this main part of the Gamelan cabinet of instruments usually is decorated with a quasi-heraldic achievement. In the Solo and Yogya principalities this consists of the sultan’s emblem supported by two naga or crowned (royal) snakes.
Gamelan gong stand, before
painted and gilded 187 Î 195 cm. Raffles collection. British Museum London.
two sea-serpents Alugoro and Nenggolo. In the middle is a bird
with wings spread.
In the same way we may consider the two flying
fish supporting a bird of the Madurese gong stand to be the (quasi-) heraldic
achievement of a Madurese prince.
As it is not known how the gong stand
and the other parts of the gamelan set has come into the possession of
Raffles, it is just a matter of speculation to whom it has belonged and what
princely government the achievement actually represents.
Towards a Solution
As such a gong and the Gong Agèng
in particular, is a symbol of the sun and consequently of the Empire. A
combination of two gongs may be a symbol of the sun and the moon and
consequently a symbol of the Empire and the State in a way we often meet
within the sphere of influence of Chinese culture.
The Flying Fish
Saron barung (metallophone) from Madura, belonging to the same gamelan set as the gong stand.
About the meaning of the flying fish we
are informed by the legend of Raden Segoro:
of Raden (Prince) Segoro narrates that long time ago the Javanese kingdom of
Medang Kamulan was ruled by one Prabu Gilingwesi, whose daughter, Dewi
Bendoro Gung, became pregnant as the gods had willed. The king, however,
became angered and ordered one of his ministers, Patih Pragulang, to kill
her. Obeying the command, Patih Pragulang sailed the princess out to sea on a
raft, but at the last moment was unable to carry out the deed. Eventually the
raft came to rest on the land which was to be called Madura, which is said to
stem from the words ‘Madu’ meaning honey, and ‘oro’, open country. Dewi
Bendoro Gung later gave birth to a handsome boy who was to be called Raden
age of three the child encountered two
sea-serpents which, through the intervention of Empu Polleng (Patih
Pragulang disguised) changed their forms and became the pusaka (heirlooms)
named Alugoro and Nenggolo. After coming of age, Raden Segoro served the king
of Medang Kamolan and on one occasion successfully repelled a Chinese
invasion. Returning to Madura he asked his mother about the identity of his
by her son’s question, Dewi Bendoro Gung turned his dwelling place into what
is now the forest of Nepa and a haven for monkeys which according to local
belief are descended from the soldiers of Raden Segoro. Nepa can be found in
the district of Banyuates, 42 km north of Sampang.”
The bird as a crest is probably of
Chinese origin. Identical birds we meet in Kutei but also in Java where it was
the emblem of high ranking Njutra soldiers.
The attitude of the Kutei and Java birds
reminds us of the Chinese He, a gerfalcon (Falco rusticolus -
Falconidæ) and the emblem of high Chinese military officials of the T’ang
Dynasty (618-907 AD). The gerfalcon was also the emblem of Chinghiz Khan
(T’ai Tsu, 1206-1227) himself. The gerfalcon in this context may be an
allusion to the repelling of the Qubilai Khan invasion by Raden Wijaja in
1293. It is most likely the symbol of a high ranking Madurese commander.
Taking this into account, the quasi achievement
displayed in the gong stand may be the emblem of the government of a high
ranking military official of the Sampang or Pamekasan dynasty.
Alas, we do not even know the name of
the ruler of Sampang/Pamekasan in the time before 1815.
The gong stand achievement is:
Emblem: A sun and a (full) moon
Crest: A crowned bird, wings expanded
Supporters: the flying fish Alugoro and Nenggolo
A hypothesis could be that the gong stand
was bought by Raffles from a sultan from Pamekasan, probably Mangku
The Winged Horse
Another symbol we meet in Madurese
heraldry is the winged horse (Pegasus in Western terminology). The
winged horse is mentioned in the story of Joko tolè, son of the Putri
(princess) Kuning, who was a grandchild of Pangeran Bukabu of Sumenep. Joko
tolè and his brother Joko wedi had been conceived by way of a dream encounter
between Putri Kuning and their father Adipoday. While journeying to Majapahit
to assist his stepfather named Empu Kelleng, Joko tolè met with his uncle,
Adirasa, who gave him the flying horse
Si Mega and a whip, both of which had been entrusted to him by Adipoday.
The winged horse Si Mega is still the regional emblem of Sumenep. The
whip, too, is one of Madura’s well known souvenirs, and the names Jokotole
and Putri Kuning (Madurese: ‘Pottre Koneng’) can be found on the ferry
boats which run between Surabaya and the Madurese port of Kamal.
The Indonesian winged horse is of
Persian origin and is probably the emblem of the Master of the Horses (also
known in the Roman Empire as the Magister Equitum). This would mean
that a prince of Sumenep at a time held the office of Master of the Horses or
that the Sumenep Dynasty held the office as a hereditary fief (within a
Mataram or Dutch military organization).
23.01.1948 - 07.03.1950
The flag of the Negara
Madoera was of two breadths green and white. It is not known if other symbols of state were ever
The Barisan Command of Madura (Barisan corps van Madoera), established by decree of 12 February 1831, supported the Royal Dutch Indies Army (KNIL) but also served to maintain peace and order on Madura.
Barisan initially was a division commanded by a 2nd Lieutenant and consisted of 2 to 5 platoons. In the 20th century it was the name of the troops of Madura.
As a result of the decree or 1831 agreements were made with the Sultan of Bangkalan, the Sultan of Sumenep and the Panembahan of Pamekasan. The strength of the troops of Bangkalan and Sumenep was determined to be 1 Infantry battalion, 1 Artillery Company and 1 Cavalry Company. The strength of the Pamekasan troops would be half the strength of the two other divisions.
In 1882 it was determined that the Barisan would consist of infantry only. After Pamekasan, Sumenep and Bangkalan had come under direct rule (resp. in 1858, 1883 and 1885), the troops were maintained under government jurisdiction. The military value of the troops was augmented substantially by this change. The troops of Pamekasan, Sumenep and Bangkalan were made of the same strength, that is to say a staff and three companies of 14 officers and 535 subordinaries.
By Decree of the Government of 19 September 1929 (No. 26) new rules for the Barisan were established.
After WW II the Barisan Command, then called Barisan Tjakra Madoera, was reestablished on 15 August 1947. It consisted of two battalions of three companies each. On 5 April 1950 a part of the Barisan Command (BTM) was incorporated in the Indonesian Army (APRIS).
The Barisan Command was deployed
at several actions amongst others at Palembang (1833, the Padri-wars
(1835-’37), the Bali actions (1846-‘49), Borneo (1850-’55), the 1st and 2nd
Aceh actions (1873-’77) and after WWII.
On a flag-chart dated about 1865, made for the Dutch
Ministry of External affairs and called Carte des pavillions en usage chez les différentes peuples des
Indes-Orientales Neerlandaises and, four flags and two pennons were
depicted for ‘MADOERA’.
There are three yellow flags, the
first with the achievement of the Sultan of Sumenep. This achievement is
identical with the achievement on the first flag
of the Sumenep Division but there is no legend on the red ribbon
readable. This should be the flag of the Sumenep Division
On the two other flags, numbered
No 2 and No 3 there are the initials S.P.S. and P.N.S.. These flags should be the flags of the
Pamekasan- and Bangkalan Divisions but the meaning of the initials is
In the time of the exploration
of the chart Pamekasan was already under direct rule (1858).
Two pennons and a flag are under No 4 with the legend Général:
The flag is a swallowtailed Dutch tricolore with a white cross saltire and it is supposed to be the flag of the commander of the Barisan Command with the rank of General.
A banner, dating from the time when the Barisan Auxiliaries were under Government jurisdiction is of the common fashion of the banners of the Dutch army. It shows the crowned ‘W’ of ‘Wilhelmina’ within a garland (on an orange cloth). It has to be noted however, that on the banners of the Dutch army the crowned ‘W’ was on the obverse, the achievement of the Kingdom on the reverse.  For the time being it remains an enigma what was on the obverse of the Barisan banner.
Banner of the ‘Barisan
Korpsen’ after 1882
The soldiers of the Barisan Corps wore a brass “B”on their collars. They were allowed to bear a red-white and blue shield with a golden “B”, on their civil dress. 
Emblem of ‘Barisan Tjakra Madoera’.
emblem of the Barisan Tjakra Madoera consisted of a yellow cakra
charged with a tiger’s head to the sinister proper, on a black disc
surrounded by a red, white and blue bordure. It was adopted by disposal Clg 4478/GS/35
© Hubert de Vries
 ) Pangèran is derived from the Javanese word “Ngèngèr”(to squat) and means “He for whom one squats”.
 ) Panembahan is derived from the Javanese word “Sĕmbah” and means “He who is honoured respectfully”.
 ) Drawings of the flags of the Ferry to Java Company and the Tramway Company of Madura preserved in the Museum voor Volkenkunde in Leiden. The N.V. Madoera Stoomtram Mij. was established in 1897.
 ) Ibbitson Jessup, Helen: Court Arts of Indonesia, New York, 1990. No. 129. Belonging to this instrument is a Saron barung in the form of a flying fish and a Slentem in the form of a (Chinese) qilin or unicorn, symbol of a military official of the first rank. Another part is in the form of the royal emblem of a naga (snake).
 ) a. Kelat bahu (bracelets for the upper arm), 19th century. Kutei. In: Ibbitson op.cit. 1990. Fig. 135/No. 94. b. Makuta of the Sultan of Yogyakarta; c. Gilded silver diadem 20th c. for Yogya soldiers. In: Brus, Kronen van de Wereld, Amsterdam, 1992, p. 53. In both cases the birds are (wrongly) called “garudas”.
 ) Illustration from: Indisch Militair Tijdschrift, 1931. See Google: Barisankorps van Madoera.
 ) Armamentaria, 1988 p. 165, Afb. 3.