As early as in the sixth century A.D. a sovereign principality of Bukhara existed. Later the city was for a long time the centre of an important region also comprising Samarkand and Taškent. Because the region was on the silk road, traces of Chinese as well as Persian cultural influences can be seen there.
From the earliest time of the White Huns or Kök-turcs frescoes are preserved showing princes of fairly mongol complexion who, however are dressed of mixed Chinese-Sassanian fashion. On their clothes are large medallions enclosing beasts of Sassanian origin also known from Iran. Such beasts are the senmurw, a pegasus and an elephant which can be interpreted as badges of rank of military officials. Also there are hog’s heads, and a goose which can be associated with another civil rank.
In the time of Tamerlane Samarkand was the capital of his empire. Tamerlane almost for certain used a simurg or phoenix as an emblem and that again is a symbol of mixed Chinese-Persian origin.
Another symbol probably dating from the time of Tamerlane is a faced sun radiant which was the national emblem of the Seljuq Empire, existing 1038-1194. It is said that the ambition of Tamerlane has been the restoration of that Empire against the mongols of the Il-khanate and that would explain the use of this symbol.
An achievement probably inspired by the achievement of Tamerlane but now lost, is on the Madrasa Nadir Diwan Beg in Bukhara. It is the Seljuq sun supported by two simurgs. As this is the only example of such an achievement in
known, we cannot be sure if this actually represents the achievement of the
State of Bukhara in the 17th century.
Sun and simurgs above the entrance of the Madrasa Nadir Diwan Beg in
Bukhara, 17th c.
In 1865 Taškent was captured by Russian from the emir of Bukhara. It was annexed and administered as Ferghana Territory (from 3 March 1876). Two years later the Emir had to cede Samarkand to Russia and from 1868 the emirate was a Russian vassal-state, bordered in the north by Russian Turkestan and in the south by the Amu Darja.
After the Russian revolution Bukhara was a sovereign emirate for some time. Its emblem can be found on paper money issued in 1918 and 1919. 
On this paper money are printed the national emblem and the seal, the emblem, and the the arms of the emir. It is likely that these emblems were also used in the 19th century and before the Russian conquest.
Central piece of a 5000
showing the national
emblem and the princely seal
The national emblem consists of a crescent and a sun radiant surrounded by a ornamental bordure.
Compared with the achievement on the Madrasa Nadir Diwan Beg the simurgs are
replaced by a crescent and the sun has no face. The emblem means: The
government of the (Bukhara) Empire.
The face of the
sun has been replaced by the seal of the ruler thus making the composed
emblem mean: The government of Bukhara of Saiyid Amir Mir
The seal of the emir consists of a tughra of his name and titles in persian script.
His emblem consists of a crescent and five-pointed star, be it inclined to the dexter or in the usual position.
Central medallion on a 100
showing the princely arms
within a signature in persian script
His coat of arms consist of a sun radiant charged with a disc with a crescent and star (= head of state of the empire)
standard of Bukhara is
known from 1917 but may be much older. It can be considered to be the emblem
of the ruler of Bukhara. It shows:
Royal Standard: Vert, a crescent and five-pointed star, in base an open right hand, between the legend: Al-soltān zell Allāh (the sultan is the shadow of God) and the šahāda: La illaha ill-Allah in arab script all Or; and a bordure tenne decorated with ornaments Sable. 
The green is the colour of the descendants of the Prophet.
The crescent is the Muslim emblem of State, the star is the emblem of the ruler, the crescent and star is the emblem of the head of state.
The open hand (of Fatima) symbolizes the five principles of Islam.
The tail-shaped ornaments probably symbolize yak-tails or tugh’s which are symbols of military rank, seven being the number of tugh’s of a sultan in wartime.
In all the banner means: The muslim head of state, descendant of the Prophet, sultan and shadow of God.
A flag, preserved in the national Museum of Bukhara, is supposed to be a war ensign but may also be a national flag. It shows:
Ensign: Azure, a crescent, in chief three five-pointed stars 2 and 1, in base an open right hand, all Argent, within a bordure Gules, al. Purpure.
* It should be remarked that a crescent and three stars was the badge of rank of an admiral / emir in Ottoman military hierarchy. Such a badge was also used by the khedives and kings of Egypt (1867-1952).
In 1920 the emir was dislodged and a People’s Council’s Republic was proclaimed (Бухарская Народна Советская Республика). In the same year it issued paper money on which the seal of the emir was replaced by an emblem consisting of a sheaf of djugara (sorghum) and a sickle in saltire which was probably meant to be the seal of the People’s Council.
A crescent-and-star within a cartouche, the emblem of the head of state, was maintained on the right side.
10,000 tengas note, 1920.
showing the national emblem
and the sultan’s crescent and star within a cartouche
An emblem for the new republic was adopted by proposal of the 3rd All Bukhara Kurultai in August 1922. The emblem is:
Emblem: A disc Gules charged with a sheaf of sorghum and a sickle in saltire proper, in chief a crescent and star Or and in base a ribbon with the name Бухарская Народна Советская Республика in persian script.
The description of the emblem in
Art. 78 of the Constitution of the B.N.S.R. reads:
đSee illustration in the head of this essay.
10 Ruble note, 1922
showing the Bukhara
In 1923 Bukhara was united with Khoresm and Turkestan into a Socialist Council’s Republic. On 27 October 1924 this republic fell apart into Turkestan, Kara-Kalpak and Uzbekistan. Today Bukhara is a province of Uzbekistan.
flags of the BNSR đ Buhara
© Hubert de Vries
 Amir Sayyed ‘Ālem Khan: La voix de la Boukharie opprimée. Paris, 1929, Frontispiece
 The Flag Bulletin 1/1, 1962, pp. 16-17; W.
Trembicky et al.: Flags of
Non-Russian Peoples under Soviet Rule. In: The Flag Bulletin 8/3, (special
issue). Lexington, Mass., 1969. p. 121.
ф.Р-47, оп.1, д.1, л.248