This site is a mirror of the original site, made in 2022 by Heraldry of the World. The original site is unaltered. This mirror functions as an archive to keep the material available on-line.
All rights remain with the late Hubert de Vries, the original site owner.


Early Arms





Early Arms

The Royal Arms

The Arms of State


The Crest

The Crown


The Greater royal arms

The Royal achievement

The Greater Royal Achievement



Back to Denmark





The arms of Denmark are: Or, strewn with 9 hearts, 3, 3 and 3 Gules, three lions passant Azure, crowned Or, langued Gules.


The first peoples in present-day Denmark of which heraldic symbols are known are the Herules who probably lived on Sjælland and Fyn, and the Cimbri who lived in North Jutland. Both of these peoples had intensive contact with the Romans, the Herules attacked the coast of Gaul in 409 and the Cimbri were defeated in the battle of Vercellae (101 BC). Nevertheless, in the fifth century we still find auxiliary troops consisting of Herulen and Cimbri in the Roman armies. Their shields are depicted in the Notitia Dignitatum. Under the inscription "Heruli" there is a shield with a red circle on a white field with red bordure. For the Cimbrin, there is a shield under the title "Cimbriani". It is red with a yellow center and an equally yellow border.

The Herules settled in the fifth century in present western Slovakia. Their leader Odoakar defeated the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, in 476 and became King of Italy. In the sixth century, however, they were expelled and many took service in the Byzantine army, including that of Belisarius.

Byzantine influence can be traced in the lion depicted on the famous Jelling Stone. On this three-cornered stone there is a lion and a snake on one side, on the other side a man with spread arms (crucifix) and on the third a text. The text reads: “King Harald had these memorials erected for Gorm, his father, and Tyra, his mother, the Harald who united all Denmark and Norway and converted the Danes to Christianity.” On the side with the griffin is the part of the text with “all Norway”. The Harald is  Harald I Blue Tooth (940-986). The side with the lion must date from the death of Harald II Graycloak († 974) of Norway, when Harald could subject the population of Norway.


Reconstruction in color of the figure on the Jelling Stone


At this time a lion may have been the distinguishing sign of a comes in the Byzantine army, a commander who had an army division of 500 to 200 men under his command.

A similar figure, dating from half a century later, has been found in London on the St. Paul’s Rune Stone.

It is not clear why Harald opted for a lion, while he as well could have chosen for an eagle, which would correspond more to his royal rank, or even a dragon. See for this: Norway.


The coat of arms of the Valdemars.

The coat of arms of Denmark is the coat of arms of the Valdemars, Kings of Denmark from the House of Svend Estridsen. In its basic form it appears for the first time on the countersealof Knud IV from 1190. In the first centuries the details, as usual in early European heraldry, are constantly changing. It is only at the beginning of the nineteenth century that the form is definitively established.

The number of lions has remained the same throughout the centuries. Until the codification of 1819 they could be depicted both passant and passant guardant without any preference.

The lions were originally uncrowned, as can be seen on the seal of Knud IV. In 1232, under the reign of Eric IV, they were crowned. Afterwards they only occur once without a crown.

A single example is known where the lions hold the "Danebrog", namely. on a version of Erik van Pommeren's coat of arms.

The hearts are called water-lily leaves in some Medieval texts (danish: Søblade). In a manuscript from 1306, the coat of arms of the Counts of Halland are described as± Desuptos leopardus est campus, continens sparsos flores, qui dicuntur "Søblad".


Apart from that, hearts are spoken of throughout the ages, and it is only in the nineteenth century that the name water-lily leaves (Søblade) is preferred.

The hearts first appear on the already mentioned counter-seal of Knud IV and then have the shape of the familiar hearts, indeed they have on a seal of Erik, count of South Jutland more the form of what one with a good will a leaf of the yellow lump. Historically, however, the figure that is called heart is certainly meant and the shape on the seal of Erik van Jutland also leans against the ancient examples of

 the figure.

The number of hearts on the shield varies considerably until 1546. In that year the number is fixed at nine. Before that, the shield is "studded with hearts" where the number depends on the space left by the lions on the shield and the size the artist chooses.



The colors of the arms have remained the same throughout the centuries. The oldest image in color is in the Wijnbergen Roll of Arms from time of the government of Erik V Klipping (1259-1286). ) Other old colored images can be found in the General Chronicle of Saxony from the end of the 13th century, on wall paintings in Ringsted and Næstved from about 1320 and in the Gelre Roll of Arms. The crowns are gold, nails, tongues and hearts red.

From later times there are no images known where the colors are different.


Crest and Crown

A crest specifically for the warriors from the Danish royal house appears for the first time on the seal of Christoffer, the son of Erik V Klipping and the later King Christoffer II (1330-'32), from 1293. It consists of two horns. with four small fans of peacock feathers. In the Gelre Roll of Arms the lambrequines and the horns are ermine.

The arms were crowned for the first time on the seal of King Olaf II from 1376. In the codification of 1819 this crowned coat of arms became the small national arms.

In 1960 a legal distinction was made between the national coat of arms and the royal coat of arms. a distinction that de facto already had existed much longer.


Later Developments: The arms of Eric of Pomerania and of Christoffer III Wittelsbach.



In 1387 the last King of the lineage of Svend Estridsen, Olaf II, died. His mother, Margarethe I, appointed a grandson of her sister, Erik of Pomerania, in 1397, as a successor to the Danish throne.

From Erik of Pomerania King of Norway  from 1387, and in 1397 also King of Sweden, various seals are known in which the coat of arms of the Valdemars appears. With that, it had become the arms of a territory instead of the arms of a family, since Erik was not related to the House of Svend Estridsen.

On his heraldic seal, which he used from 1398 to 1435, five heraldic symbols were united, namely the arms of his kingdoms and the coat of arms of Pomerania, which he had inherited from his father. The arms are:

Arms: Quartered by a silver cross: 1. Or, three lions passant Azure crowned of the first, langued and ungules Gules together keeping the Danebrog (Denmark); 2. Azure three crowns Or, 2 and 1 (Sweden); 3 Bendy wavy Argent and Azure, a lion rampant Or (Folkunge); 4 Agent, a griffin reversed Gules, billed and clawed Or (Pomerania). And on an excutcheon in fess point; Gules, a lion Or with an axe of a blade Argent and a handle of the first in its claws (Norway).


The white cross is derived from the white cross of the banner of the Holy Roman Empire on which it stands on a red cloth. The Danebrog is identical to this and it means that Denmark was considered to be a part of the Holy Roman Empire. According to the legend, borrowed from the vision of Constantine before the battle of the Milvian bridge in 312, it would have appeared in the sky at the battle of Lyndaniz against the pagan Estonians in 1219. [1]

In fact, the cross appears for the first time on the seal of Waldemar III Atterdag ("Dawn") of 24 February 1356. [2] This is also the year in which the Golden Bull, a kind of Constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, was drafted by Emperor Charles IV (1355-'78).

The political grounds on which the relationship with the Holy Roman Empire was emphasized at the time, were not investigated here, but Waldemar profiled himself with a seal on which there is a coat of arms with a cross between the letters of his name, emphatically as a liege man of the Empire. This was in line with the designation by Frederick Barbarossa of Sven III as First King during the Danish Civil War (1152), alongside his rivals Knud III and Waldemar I, the Great


Seal and counterseal, 1356

Petersen 41 a.b.


A Arms: Strewn with roses, a cross edged, charged with roses and their tendrils,  in the quarters WAL DE MA RVS

B Arms: Chequered per bend sinister, each diamond charged with a rose, and a bend sinister, inscribed TYL DANALOGh. between two bendlets strewn with roses.


Afterwards the white cross is used as a national symbol, a coat of arms with a white cross on a red field as a national coat of arms, also in the form of a flag, as it appears for the first time in color in the Gelre Roll of Arms. Until the middle of the 18th century, the cross served as the supporter of the arms of the kingdom, in particular of the coat of arms of Denmark, and from the middle of the 17th century the coat of arms of the chancellery.

In the royal coat of arms the cross is on the arms quarterly of the parts of the kingdom and is charged with the personal arms of the monarch. In fact it symbolizes that the Kingdom of Denmark is a part of the Holy Roman Empire.


The royal coat of arms can be compared to the royal arms of Hungary and England



Erik of Pommerania was succeeded in 1440 in Denmark and in 1442 in Norway by Christoffer III Wittelsbach

Arms of this monarch are known on which the quarters occur in different orders. On his seal from 1440 is a coat of arms quartered with a cross and in the four quarters Denmark, Palts, Wittelsbach and Wenden. See Æ Docmentation

Initially the cross was straight and white (Argent). At the end of the 15th century, when the Holy Roman Empire was reduced to the German Nation, a red bordure was added, thus making the arms of the Danish Nation of the Holy Roman Empire. After the creation of the Danebrogorden in 1671 the cross became pattée and Gules, voided Argent. This remained so until Queen Margarteha II restored the tradition of the straight cross in 1972.


Later Developments: The arms of the Kings of the House of Oldenburg


With the accession to the three Scandinavian thrones by Christian I from the House of Oldenburg, a new heraldic tradition in the royal Danish coat of arms is heralded. In the arms of these Kings, the blazons of the territories they actually ruled or on which they had a claim came in constantly changing combinations and order. The order usually corresponds to the order of the terms in the royal title.

The maintenance of the three Swedish crowns in the coat of arms after the disintegration of the personal union in 1523, as an arms of pretension, was one of the few examples in world history in which a heraldic issue was the cause of war (1563-1570).

From 1570 onwards, the swedish coat of arms with the three crowns is called the arms of the Union of Kalmar in the arms of the Danish Kings.


The arms are crowned from 1459


Supporters were introduced by Christian I. In 1449 they were two wild men, in 1450 two lions, in 1457 a soldier and a wild man, in 1459 an angel and a wild man. The son of Christian I, Johan, bore a lion and a lioness in 1484. The supporters then disappeared until Christian IV when two wild men were reintroduced.


The Ornaments of the Order of the Elephant (Elefantenorden) were added to the coat of arms in the 16th century, initially they were limited to the elephant alone, but later on it was hung on the ribbon of the order and later on the collar


A mantle appears in 1693 and this has continued to be part of the royal achievement up to the present day.


As in other countries, the arms of the Danish government are of several categories. The royal arms appears in the 12th century and these basic arms are differentiated in the late 13th century by adding a version with a crest. A crowned coat of arms appears in the 14th century so that the original arms can be labeled to be the national arms.

Under Erik of Pomerania a distinction is made between the royal coat of arms of the monarch, which consists of a quarterd shield, and the crowned national coat of arms.

The arms of the monarch is split in the 15th century into a royal coat of arms consisting of the shield only, and the royal coat of arms with supporters that can be regarded as the royal coat of arms, resp. the coat of arms of the royal executive.

The coat of arms of the royal government is preceded by the coat of arms of the government that consisted of the white cross, above which a crown, held up by a lion and a griffin. This experiment in the state ordinance seems to have ended soon because of this achievement only one example on a seal from 1396 is known. From then on, the royal governemement would be given heraldic form by the royal arms with crown and supporters.


Achievement 1369

Petersen 60

Emblem:  Square  cross

Crown: A royal crown

Supporters: D.: Lion S.: Griffin

L: [signetu erici dei gra re]gis et ducis pom et c...


A complete set of the cross is known: the national symbol, the national coat of arms, the state arms and the royal coat of arms.


These arms later became the lesser royal arms. This arises when the larger royal arms were designed that consists of the arms with the supporters surrounded by a  mantle after the model of the mantle proposed by Petra Sancta. This achivement symbolizes the monarchy in its totality, embodied in the monarchy, and thus it is an image of an absolute monarchy. The absolute monarchy was established in Denmark in 1660.

The chancellery now seems to have continued the crowned national coat of arms. There have also been arms in use where the dynastic arms of the Oldenburgs was missing and thus can be regarded as the national arms of the Danish monarchy. In the seventeenth century, this arms was simplified into a shield divided in three with the blazons of Denmark, Norway and the Kalmarer Union. After the loss of Norway in 1814, the blazon of Norway was replaced by the blazon of Schleswig, which, however, was lost in 1863 for the Danish crown and in 1865 was replaced by Prussia. As a result, the chancellery arms were reduced in 1912 to the crowned arms of Denmark alone.


In addition to the royal coat of arms in three versions and the chancellery arms, there is also a national symbol. This is a white cross, not long after its commissioning in the 14th century with a red border. This national symbol is always part of the Royal Arms from the government of Erik van Pommeren, which can be seen as a prelude to the absolute monarchy. The arms of parts of the monarchy are placed on this national symbol until the middle of the 18th century as a supporter, thus creating the phrase "the government of Denmark by the grace of the Empire.








In the Notitia Dignitatum there is under the legend „Heruli”, a people that should be localized on Sjaelland and Fyn, a red crcle on a white shiel with a red bordure

For the Cimbri, living in North-Jutland there is a shield under the name „Cimbriani”. It is red with a yellow disk in the middel and a bordure also yellow.


~ 500 AD

The Funen bracteate (DR BR42 = DR IK58), found in Funen, Denmark.


Figures: Rider and eagle

The runic inscription is read as:


houaz laþu aaduaaaliia a--

or alternatively

houaz / laþu aa duaaalii(a) / al(u)


According to the display at the National Museum of Denmark, houaz is interpreted as "The High One", a name of Odin. [3]


Such a “High One” was for example Rudolf (about 500-510) who was a chief (king) of the Herulen.


* After the death of Attilla and the fall of the Huns Kingdom in 454 the Herulen in South Slovakia established a kingdom near the rivers Theiss and the Mureş. Around 500 this kingdom in the south bordered on the area of ​​the Ostrogoths, on the left of the Danube in Hungary on the Longobards and further downstream on the Gepiden.

At the time of Rudolf the Herulen were at war with the Longobards. In 510, under the leadership of their king Wacho, they invaded the territory of the Herulen and destroyed the kingdom. Rudolf was killed in the battle. The majority of the vanquished Herulen then joined the Longobards, a minority joined the Gepiden. 


The Royal Arms


Harald I Bluetooth

940 - 986



Memorial stone of King Harald in Jellinge (Jutland).

On the stone of Jellinge from the time of Harald I (after his baptism in 960) there is a griffin on the front. The text on the stone reads: "King Harald had these memorials erected for Gorm, his father, and Tyra, his mother, the Harald who united Denmark and Norway and converted the Danes to Christianity." On the side with the griffin is the part of the text with "completely and Norway". On the third side of the stone is a crucifix.


Already at the beginning of the 9th century, Louis the Pious (814 - 840) had settled his hopes on the Danish pretender of the throne, Harald, who had become a Christian and had sworn to him the oath for a fief in Friesland. Together with Ansegarius, a monk from the northern French monastery Corbie, Harald had returned to Denmark, but his success there was not great and when the Danes expelled him, Ansegarius also had to run away. This Harald is not the Harald of the stone of Jellinge The stone must be attributed to Harald Bluetooth (940-986).


ME200 – DENMARK,Harald Bluetooth Gormson (Danish: Harald Blåtand) (c.940-986), Silver Halvbrakteater or Semi-Bracteate, 0.28g., (struck c.940 - c.960), Hedeby mint (now Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) or Jelling mint (near Vejle, Jutland, Denmark), geometric design based around a cross with trefoil terminals overlying an abstraction of a facing figure in a boat (Hauberg -), a full round coin with no flan cracks or chips,


Harold Bluetooth, the grandfather of Cnut (the Great), converted to Christianity in 956 and famously had his parents Gorm the Old and Thyra posthumously converted to his new faith and reburied in a new church he had built next to their traditional pagan burial mounds at the royal site of Jelling. The achievements of Harald and Gorm are recorded on two elaborately carved runestones at the site. Jelling, is one possible mint for this coinage, the other being the large commercial town of Hedeby further down the Jutland peninsula.


Svend I Forkbeard


King of England 1013


Tombstone erected by Ginne and Toke in St. Paul’s churchyard, London, in the early eleventh century. Carved with a design related to that of the stone raised by King Harald at Jelling, Denmark, it seems to represent a fight between a serpent and a lion. Here the original colours have been restored.


St. Paul’s churchyard, London. reconstructed headstone from a grave, 11th c. Reconstruction, Eva Wilson.


An example of a coin struck by Sven Forkbeard in ca. 995. The inscription says: ZVEN REX DAENER (Sven King of Denmark). Coins of this type are considered to be the beginning of the Danish coinage.


Harald II



Knud I, the Great

King of England 1016-1035

King of Denmark 1019-1035


Edmund Ironside (†1016) and Knud the Dane

By Matthew Paris Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 26. p. 160



Coins - Denmark - Knud d. Store, 1016 - 18 – 1035 Viborg, penning, Hbg. 49, Hbg. auk. 74, mintmaster "Uloric", 0,81 g - finely toned copy of deni




DENMARK. temp. Svend Tveskæg – Knud den Store. Circa 1003-1020. AR Penny (19 mm, 2.12 g, 12h). Imitation of Æthelred II, Helmet type. Lund mint. + ÆÐELRED REX Λ, helmeted bust left / + IΘ DM MΘ ИΘ EH, voided long cross, with pellet in center and triple crescent ends, over square with trefoil at each point. Malmer Chain 105:B2, dies 508/1613; B. Gunnarsson, “Den gäckande kedja 105 - spåret av en vikingatida myntunion?” in Samlad glädje 2009 : Numismatiska Klubben Uppsala 1969-2009 (Uppsala : Numismatiska Klubben, 2009), fig. 14 (same obv. die). VF, wavy flan, peck marks. Rare.

konografisk interessante type med Guds hånd på adversen Hbg 49





Magnus the Good

King of Norway 1035-1042



DENMARK. Stridsperioden (Civil War).1044-1047. AR Penny (17mm, 1.04 g, 2h). Lund mint; Ilontat(?), moneyer. + O ID IIIVDCO, bird (eagle) standing left / + IL· ONT ΛT N LVD, voided square cross, with pellet at center and triple-crescent ends; crescent in first quarter. Becker rev. die 110; Hauberg 16 (Magnus the Good); Hede III, 43. EF, toned, two peck marks on reverse. Very rare.


Penny of Magnus. Lund mint

DENMARK Magnus I den Gode (the Good) Olufsen (1042-47), Penny, 0.97g, Lund mint, blundered legends, Agnus Dei, lamb facing right, rev. voided square cross, crescents at limb ends (Hauberg VII, 15 var.), slightly creased, peck marks, good fine or better, rare. Provenance: Purchased from Allan Davisson, September 1999


House of Svend Estridsen


Svend II Estridsen



Coin of Svend II

Source: Hauberg, P. (1900). Myntforhold og Udmyntninger i Danmark indtil 1146.


Obv.: Bust of King with shield strewn with bolts, on his dexter a sceptre with crescent and crested with a trefoil

Rev.: King in Byzantine dress with cross-staff  and orb



Denar of Svend II, Lund. mint 1.04 g. Obv.: Agnus Dei to the sinister Rev.: Eagle, wings expanded, head to the dexter.



DENMARK Lund, penning, Hbg. 16, Hbg. auk. 910, 1,05 g - finely toned specimen of this interesting type, which clearly imitates the Byzantine solidi, where the emperor is crowned by Christ.. Rev voided square square cross.

Hbg 16  EF-VF


Harald III, Hén



Canute IV




Canute IV (c. 1042 – 10 July 1086), later known as Canute the Holy: (Knud IV den Hellige) or Saint Canute (Sankt Knud), was King of Denmark from 1080 until 1086. Canute was an ambitious king who sought to strengthen the Danish monarchy, devotedly supported the Roman Catholic Church, and had designs on the English throne. Slain by rebels in 1086, he was the first Danish king to be canonized. He was recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as patron saint of Denmark in 1101.


Seal of Majesty. CS.: Equestrian seal with falcon on hand. 21.May 1085

Petersen 1a&b


Cnutus quartus, magni regis filius. Seal: Crowned king with orb in his left hand sitting on a throne with legs of eagle’s or lion’s claws

L.: ª PRESENTI REGEM SIGNO COGNOSCE CNVTONE. (present signs of king cnvt).

Counterseal: Crowned rider with falcon on his right hand 

L.:  HIC NATV REGIS MAGNI SVB NOMINE CERNIS.(this king was born under an illustrious name).

Date:15 May 1085

(Rep. 1). Brændt 1692. Afb. Peringskiölds Ättartal för Swea och Götha Konunga Hus S. 71, jvf. Dip1.A.M. 1. 1. 1. Fabricius: Danm. Hist. 1. 328. 085


A section of the eagle blanket,

which is found in the crypt in Odense Cathedral in 2008, and which is believed to be a gift to the church from the king's widow, Queen Edel, who later married a norman duke in southern Italy (the City Archives).


A publication about the blanket is from:


Anne Hedeager Krag: Ørnetæppet og andre silkefund fra Knud den Helliges helgenskrin i Odense Domkirke. 2010 [4]


The silk finds from Odense are considered by foreign researchers to be unique among European silk finds from the Middle Ages. The eagle rug and bird pattern on the pillow contain symbols of power, eagle, and immortality, the peacock. These are symbols that can be passed on to power and Christianity. This symbolic language has probably been known by the donor, when the textiles were closed down in the box at the saint's wedding in 1100.


On June 10, 1086, King Knud IV and his herd were murdered in St. Albani Church in Odense. This event has made decisive traces in the history of Denmark right up to our time, and in the year 1100 King Knud became Denmark's royal saint


On March 3, 2008, Saint Knud’s shrine in the crypt in Odense Cathedral was opened with great attention from the press. There were two reasons for the opening: Lecturer in biological anthropology at the Department of Forensic Medicine, SDU, dr. of medicine Jesper Boldsen had been authorized to examine the saint's bones, and archaeologist and textile researcher Anne Hedeager Krag to get ten small threads of silk from the tomb. These have been analyzed at ICN, the Institute for the Cultural Heritage of the Netherlands in Amsterdam, and the results are seen in this book.


The silk threads originate from two rare patterned silk weaves, which, just like Knud the Holy's bones today, can be seen in the crypt in Odense Cathedral. A larger piece in red with patterned eagles, eagle blanket, and a yellow pillow with peacock motifs. They are both believed to come from the holy cricket with King Knud, who was sanctified in 1100. The silk textiles are believed to be gifts from Knud's widow Edel, who was married to a Norman Duke in southern Italy and brought home by King Erik I Ejegod (Evergood), who in 1098 visited Rome and Southern Italy. Next to King Knud's sanctuary stands another shrine, which can have contained the king's brother Benedict. In this shrine are two solid yellow silk cushions, one short and one long.


The book is about the textiles from the two burial shrines. The text includes new color analyzes of the silk textiles as well as an interpretation of their subject content, style and application on a broad European basis in the light of recent research. The new color analyzes show that the Odense silks are colored with six different plant colors, two red, two blue and two yellow. One of the yellow color items is rarely seen in Denmark. These are Persian berries of the genus Rhamnus, which give a saffron yellow color which, in addition to the Odense silks, has been proved in one of Frederik III (1648-1670) suits, which are found in the collections at Rosenborg.


It is probably this saffron yellow silk that is referred to in the Englishman Ælnoth's chronicle, which is written about 20 years after the canonization and the sanctification of King Knud - the saffron yellow color described in the written source from ca. 1120 corresponds with the natural sciences color analysis made almost 900 years later in 2008.


The eagle, here of Byzantine design, is the badge of rank of a consul and in Western roman context of a king in his military function. It was the badge of some of the predecessors of Knud IV and of many other kings.

The peacock pillow from the shrine of St. Knud.

Drawing by Magnus Petersen, 1875 (Burman Becker 1886). after Hedeager Krag 2010: fig. 9.


The decoration consists of anchors supported by peacocks separated by hearts.

The peacock is a badge of the office of a prefect or a vicar on the level of a roman diocese. Therefore the eagle and the peacock can be displayed together.

The anchor is usually the emblem of the navy and therefore should be connected with his command of his raid to England in 1075.

The heart may be the badge of his function, for which a primicerius, or a proedros dekanos (president of  the chiefs of ten), is  proposed, durimg that raid.


Oluf I Hunger



Coin of Oluf Hunger



Erik I the Evergood






1130 ca Portrait of St. Canute in the  Church of Nativity in Bethlehem.

Danish king with shield at his feet



Arms: Argent, a carbuncle (thunderbolt) of eight rays between eight moon-and-star constellations and a bordure Sable or Azure, with golden meanders

Legend: canutus rex danorvm.


With this Canutus  no doubt Saint Knud IV is meant.


Æ To: Denmark 2: Lions and Hearts



Back to Main Page



 © Hubert de Vries




[1] A danish historian, the franciscan monk Peder Olesen, wrote at the beginning of the 16th century that the Danes at almost got the worst at the battle of Felin. They therefore prayed for God’s help and  "....da opnåede de den nåde, at de straks modtog et flag, som faldt ned fra himlen, tegnet med et hvidt kors på ulden dug, og de hørte en røst i luften, som sagde, at når det blev løftet i vejret, skulle de visseligt vinde en fuldstændig sejr....hvilker også skete".

[2] Date according to Petersen   n° 41 a.b.. That is. according to the calender then used,  the end of the year 1356 because the new year began in march then. This would mean that Valdemar designed these arms after the launching of the Golden Bull.

[3] About danish bracteats:http://www.arild-hauge.com/danske_runeinnskrifter4.htm

[4] https://bog.nu/titler/oernetaeppet-og-andre-silkefund-fra-knud-den-helliges-helgenskrin-i-odense-domkirke-anne-hedeager-krag

Flag Counter In cooperation with Heraldry of the World