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The Bull’s Head

The Arms

The Achievement


Back to Romania



The Cumans who remained east and south of the Carpathian Mountains established a county named Cumania, which was a strong military base in an area consisting of parts of Moldavia and Wallachia. The Hungarian kings claimed supremacy over Cumania – among the nine titles of the Hungarian kings of the Árpád and Anjou dynasties were rex Cumaniae, but few, if any, Cuman leaders recognized their overlordship, pointing to the fact that rex Cumaniae was an allegory title since the kings never fulfilled that role. The Cuman influence in Wallachia and Moldavia was very strong, according to some historians who claim that the earliest Wallachian rulers bore Cuman names (e.g. Tihomir and Bassarab). The Cumans played a crucial role in the formation of Wallachia at the end of the 14th century; many of the first Romanian nobleman were of Cuman descent. Transylvania enjoyed Cuman protection against Hungarian incursions into the Carpathians. The toponymy of the most densely populated regions of Romanian settlement shows strong evidence of Cuman traces and placenames. With a lack of convincing archaeological evidence of a Cuman civilisation, it appears the Cumans were a minority in the local population, but they made up part of the ruling élite in Wallachia.

Basarab I, son of the Wallachian prince Thocomerius of Wallachia obtained independence from Hungary at the beginning of the 14th century. The dynasty was founded by the Cumans, the name meaning "Father King". It is generally believed by historians (Bulgarian and Hungarian) that the Bulgarian mediaеval dynasties Asen, Shishman and Terter were Cumanian. Romanian historians suggest that old chronicles indicated a Romanian origin of Asen family. Leading figures of the Terteroba clan as well as Khan Koten's relatives settled in Bulgaria

A direct attack on Cumania came only in 1238–1239, and encountered serious resistance by various Cuman khans. The final blow came in 1241, when the Cuman control over the Pontic steppes ended and the Cuman-Kipchak confederation ceased to exist as a political entity, with the remaining Cuman tribes being dispersed, either becoming subjects and mixing with their Mongol conquerors as part of what was to be known as the Golden Horde (Kipchak Khanate) and Nogai Horde or fleeing to the west, to the Byzantine Empire, the Second Bulgarian Empire, and the Kingdom of Hungary, where they integrated into the elite and became kings and nobles with many privileges. Other Cuman captives were sent to Egypt to be sold as slaves; these slaves would go on to become Mamluks who would attain the rank of Sultan, or hold regional power as emirs or beys. Some of these Cumans, now as Mamluks, would fight the Mongols again, defeating them at the Battle of Ain Jalut and Battle of Elbistan


In the 12th and 13th century the territory around the lower reaches of the river Prut belonged to the Kingdom of the Vlacho-Bulgarians or briefly Bulgaria. Repeated attempts to expel the Cumenes from the territory failed. Only Louis the Great of Hungary (1342-‘82) could give an important impetus to the conquest of the territory. By campaigns of Stephan Lackfy, voivode of Transilvania, in the years 1345-’46 the south could be captured. A mark was founded, the nucleus of the future state of  Moldavia. In 1347, before Louis the Great departed for his Neopolitan Campaign (3 November 1347) the administration of this mark was given to a Lord of Maramureş known as Dragoş. For seven years  (1347-’54) Dragoş continued his campaigns within the territory and also participated in the campaigns of Louis the Great against the Cumans. He was succeeded by his son Sas. These however was chased away by the former voivode of Maramureş, Bogdan. With Bogdan the rule of the House of Musat starts in Moldavia, continuing until the beginning of the 17th centry.

After the death of Louis the Great Poland came to his daghter Hedwig who married the Grand Duke of Lithuania. It remained a vassal state of the King of Poland until the 16th century when Poland wa srepalced by the Ottoman Empire.

In the 19th century the Ottoman Empire had to give up its suzereinty and in 1859 the Principality was united with teh Principality of Walchia into the United Principalities which became the sovereign Kingdom of Romania in 1881.




The Arms of Moldavia


Map of Angelino Dulcerta, 1339.

The territory east of the Siret called burgaria


1339 ca. On the map of Angelino Dulcerta the territory is still a part of the Golden Horde. At Vicina (Vecina) in the delta of the Danube there is a flag identical to the other flags in the realm of the Golden Horde, called Cvmania on the map. This flag is white with a tamgha consisting of a stroke upwards, to the right, downwards and to the upper right with a stroke upwards in the middle. On the dexter is a crescent. This is supposed to be the flag and tamgha of Uzbek (1312-’41)



The Bull’s head.


The Bull in Antiquity

Narrowly connected with Moldavia is a bull’s head which figures in its arms and in the crest of its rulers.

There is some evidence that the bull, and consequently a bull’s head is an ancient martial symbol which was used by some rulers of Assyria and Urartu as their personal emblem.


Rock relief at Maltai

The best preserved of four similar panels of rock reliefs at Maltai, carved on the cliff-face on the southern side of the Dehok valley, by the road leading from Assyria to the Upper Zab valley. The assyrian king, probably Sennacherib (r. 704-681 BC), flanks a procession of seven deities (i.e. rulers or governors) on their animals, probably Aššur, Mulissu, Enlil or Sîn, Nabű, Šamaš, Adad and Ištar (paying homage to him). The third  vassal standing on a bull, the sixth on two bulls. In other instances these princes are symbolized by the seven stars of the Pleiades.


Its meaning seems to be derived from an ancient battle order which we can see on a bronze shield of king Sarduri II (753-735 BC) of Urartu from Karmir Blur, which was recently excavated. [1] This shows a sun surrounded by three concentric rings of lions, bulls and lions. This may be a battle order of lions attacking in the outer offensive ring, the bulls defending in the middle defensive ring and lions in the central ring guarding the empire or the ruler as a ‘royal’ guard.

Bronze shield of king Sarduri II  from Karmir Blur.


Greek shields on the Chigi-vase, 650-640 BC


The bull’s head as a badge of rank after the Gorgoneion as a badge of the supreme commander and the eagle.


Unmistakably having a martial meaning is the standard of a bull’s head in the Pergamon Sanctuary where it is represented together with shields and armory. This may have been the standard of the defending Seleucid ranks in the Roman-Seleucid wars (192-188 BC). It may have been borrowed from the Assyrians as the Seleucid Empire of the time comprised much of the former Assyrian Empire.


Relief showing booty weapons from the halls of the Pergamene Athena sanctuary


The relief was dedicated by Eumenes II (197-159 BC) to the goddess who brought victory after the triumph over the Seleucids and their allies in 184 BC.



82 BC – 106 AD


Burebista (Βυρεβίστας, Βοιρεβίστας), unified the Getean and Dacian tribes for the first time and ruled them between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in a palace coup, the empire was divided into smaller states.

Apart from the inscriptions on the Sinaia Tablets and on his seal only three ancient sources on Burebista survive: Strabo: Geographica 7.3.5, 7.3.11 and 16.2.39 (who spells his name Byrebistas and Boirebistas); Jordanes: Getica 67 (spells his name Buruista); and a marble inscription found in Balchik, Bulgaria (now found at the National Museum in Sofia) which represents a decree by the citizens of Dionysopolis about Akornion


A bull’s head in connection with the Kingdom of Dacia,  is documented by the so-called tablets of Sinaia.


Ć Like some other ancient societies there seems to have been three ranges of authority in Dacia. Such ranges of authority are for example known from ancient Athens where they were headed by the three archonts of the έπωνυμος (eponemos), giving his name to the year, the βαςιλευς (basileus) the High priest, and the πολεμαρχος (polemarchos) the supreme commander. On the tablet below the symbols of such archonts or state officials in Dacian society may have been  represented. The tablet is a part of the socalled Lead Plates of Sinaia the origin of which is not without any doubt. [2] For a part these are described in a recent study by Stefanoski-Al Dabija. [3]

We may assume that the central figure represents the Dacian ruler with the badge of his office, a crown crested with a ball. On his breast are a moon, symbol of the state, and a sun, symbol of the realm or the Dacian Empire. On the left of him, (the dexter side) is a stand supporting a bull’s head, its legs intertwined with a serpent. This we may assume, is the symbol of the supreme commander as a bull’s head may be the symbol of a commander of the defenders of the second line (borrowed probably from the battle array of ancient Urartu and Persia.) [4]

On the right (sinister) is a figure consisting of a long haired face with a Janus’ Head. This, we may assume, is the emblem of the high priest (Basileus).


One of the Sinaia tablets

Representing the three ranges of authority

No translation available


On another tablet the standard of Dacia is represented. This consists of a pole with a vexillum with three tassels charged with a bull’s head.


Bull’s head standard on tablet 9 (52) of the Sinaia Tablets


Seal of Burebista [5]






Helmeted bust of official


Bull’s head within garland



M   B

D   GE




O +   GET


S   Z

Mato.......Borebiseto / Davo......Geto / H

Beloved Burebista /   Getic Citizen /Hielarh (Chiliarch = General)

Tapo / pantelo / Mato Geto / Davo / Sarmigetuzo Zabelo

Seal /of the Supreme Commander /Beloved  Gete

Military Administrator of the settlement of Sarmigetuza


Another bull in connection with Dacia is known from an umbo from about the reign of the Dacian King Comosicus (44 BC – 28 AD) .

Umbo with bull from Piatra Roşie


Ć Recently umbos of Dacian parade shields have been excavated in Piatra Roşie (jud. Hunedoara, Romania) near Sarmizegetusa, the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Dacia.

These pieces represent a sun radiant charged with a gazelle, a bull and a griffin respectively. They are said to date from the 1st cent. BC-1st cent. AD and have a diameter of about 40 cm. We may assume that they are individual heraldic devices.  Perhaps they fit into a rank system as the griffin and also the bull do. However, we have to wait until many other such devices have been found before we can be sure. The sun on which they are mounted certainly is the symbol of the realm, that is to say of the Kingdom of Dacia.




The arms of the principality of Moldavia are a bull’s head with a star between its horns between a rose and a crescent.


After an odd millennium the bull’s head occurs again in a European south eastern context.


Bull’s heads are on a coin of Nicholas I Lacković (lackfi Miklós), who was Ban of Slavonia (1342–43), and Voivode of Transylvania (1367–1369).


Coin of Louis the Great (1342-’82), 1365ca.


Obv.: Marten running to the right and above it a crown, below a cloverleaf. The inscription reads: MONETA NICOLAI BAN. NI.

Rev.: Double cross, between two crescents in chief and two bull’s heads with a cross between the horns in base.


The bull’s head however is ascribed by medieval chroniclers to Dragoş who was a voivode in Moldavia (1345/1359 -1353/1361) and, according to legend, had hunted an aurochs or bison, ending with his "dismounting" by the Moldova River, which gave rise to the development of Moldavia. The Anonymous Chronicle of Moldavia contains a short summary: "In the year 6867 Dragoș Voivode came from the Hungarian country, from Maramureș, hunting an aurochs ...". The Moldo-Polish Chronicle preserved a more detailed story: "By the will of God, the first voivode, Dragoș, came from the Hungarian country from the town and river of [Maramureș], hunting an aurochs which he killed on the river Moldova. There he feasted with his noblemen, and liking the country he remained there, bringing [Vlachs] from Hungary as colonists.


However, many historians (including Ștefan S. Gorovei, Dennis Deletant, Neagu Djuvara, and Constantine Rezachevici) say that a successful Hungarian campaign under the command of Andrew Lackfi, Count of the Székelys, against the Tatars across the Carpathians in 1345 gave rise to the development of a defensive march, ruled by Dragoș. According to Deletant, the establishment of that border province was connected to the foundation of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Milkovia, which was sanctioned, upon the request of Louis I of Hungary, by Pope Clement VI on 27 March 1347  [6]


As we are of the opinion that the bull’s head is a badge of the commander of a defense force we may conclude that Dragoş adopted (or was granted by Louis the Great) a bull’s head as his badge of office in his quaility of a commander of the Hungarian defence forces.


The bull’s head was represented for the first time as a crest together with the arms of  Peter I Muşat (1375-‘91). It has remained the crest of all rulers of Moldavia from the House of Muşat.


Coin of Peter I Muşat with the bull’s head crest


Soon, or at the same time, the bull’s head was placed on a shield, making the coat of arms of Moldavia.

The star, crescent and rose are the emblem of a prince, the Hungarian State and the Hungarian Empire, the crescent and sun earlier on the seal of King Andrew II (1223) and, as we have see, on a Dacian tablet.


The arms are represented for the first time on a seal of Peter Musat attached to his act of submission to Vladislav Jagiello of 1387. This seal is nowadays in the Polish archives but no representation is available.[7]

Seal of Roman I, 30.03.1392


A next seal bearing those arms is on the seal of Roman I who submissed himself on 5 January 1393:


Sigiliul voievodului Roman I.

(Tratat de vasalitate, Suceava, 5 ianuarie 1393)


Seal of Alexander the Good, 18.04.1409[8]


Seal of Alexander the Good, 1427 (inversed)


Arms: Moldavia



Seal of Alexander the Good, 01.06.1429


Seal of Stephen and Ilias, 17.02.1438


Voievode Petru Aron (1451-’57) legalizes the acquisition of Gurbăneşti by George Nenescu 

18 Septembrer 1447.


Ć http://www.pemptousia.ro/2012/10/arhiva-romaneasca/626-583-2/


Seal of Peter II, 05.10.1448

Seal of Stephen the Great, 1459


After Stephen the Great had done homage to King Casimir IV of Poland in 1484,  the arms of Moldavia were borne by the kings of Poland, the princes of Moldavia merely bearing the bull’s head as a crest on their personal arms.


Seal of Stephen the Great, 13.03.1489


Seal of Stephen the Great, 26.02.1491

Seal of Stephen the Great 15.03.1495


Seal of Stephen the Great 16.03.1497.


On the seal of  King Alexander 1501-‘06


On the seal of  King Sigismund the Elder (1506-’48)

Replica of the banner of King Sigismund August of Poland (1548-’72)

In the Presidential Palace in Warsaw


The arms of King Sigismund August surrounded by the arms of his territories. In dexter chief the arms of Moldavia being: Azure, a bull’s head Sable with a ring piercing its nose and a six-pointed star between its horns, Or.

This is the earliest representation known of the arms of Moldavia in colour. It should be noted that the star and crescent are missing.


Seal of voievode Alexandru Lapuşeanu (1562-’61 & 1564-’68) of Moldavia. August 1560.


Ć http://www.pemptousia.ro/2012/10/arhiva-romaneasca/


Arms of Moldavia

From: Sarmatić Europeć Descriptio.Spirć, 1581


On the seal of King Stephan Bathory (1576-’86)


On the seal of King Sigismund III (1587-1632)

Ottoman Suzerainty


The Turkish era until the division (1538-1812)


In 1538 Moldova was conquered by the Ottomans. Instead vassals of the Polish king, the Moldavian princes now became vassals of the  Porte. Their desire for autonomy, however, did not change. Just like in old times they tried to enlarge it by seeking support from the rivals of their liege. The most successful among them, Vasile Lupu (1634-'53) augmented the Moldovan coat of arms by adding a princely crown a sword and scepter in saltire and two angels for supporters. By Dimitrie Cantemir (1693 & 1710-'11) the angels were replaced by lions. Cantemir tried in 1711 to restore the independence of Moldavia by entering into a treaty with Peter the Great of Russia. The allied armies of Moldavia and Russia were defeated the same year by the Turks at Stalinisti. To put an end to the ongoing Moldovan agitation the Porte henceforth made govern the principality by Greeks originating from Constantinople, the Phanariotes. Under their reign the coat of arms was changed. The crown around the horns and the sun and moon were removed (officially?) and the field became gold instead of blue. Scepter, sword and crown were retained as showpieces.


Seal of Ieremia Movila, 03.03.1597


Polish Suzerainty1600-1618



Sigismund Bathory bore the arms of Moldavia as a Prince of Moldavia. The drawing by Chiflet can be dated exactly on 1600-1602 The description reads:


[Au II] d'argent, a une teste de bufle affrontée, de sable; au canton dextre du chef, un croissant d'or; au senestre, une etoille de mesmes. [9]


See also: Transilvania & Romania


Letter of Ieremia Movila (1600-‘06) for Golia Monastery, 30 May 1606


Ottoman Suzerainty 1618-1812


The arms of Moldavia remained as an arms of pretence on the royal seal of the Kings of Poland until the end of the monarchy.


On the seal of King John III Sobieski, 1674-‘96


On the seal of King August II (1697-1733)

On the seal of King Stanislas I (1704-1736)


In the mean time the arms were embellished with a crown and a sword and mace in saltire by the voievodes of Moldavia under Ottoman suzerainty


Vasile Lupu (1634-‘53)

Textbook. Iaşi 1643


Gheorghe Duca 1668-‘72 / 1678-‘83

Psalterium in verses, 1673


Gheorghe Duca 1678-‘83

Slavo-romanian Psalterium, Iaşi 1680


Arms of Moldavia,

From the Vitezovic Armorial, 1701. The star, sun and crescent omitted. [10]


Antioh Cantemir (1695-1700)

Divanul sau Gîceava înţeleptului cu lumea. Iaşi 1698


Johan Mavrocordat 1743-‘47

From Arbitrul adevărului şi al dreptăţii, Iaşi 1746


Matei Ghica 1753-‘56

Penticostarul.  Iaşi 1753

Ioan Callimachi 1758-‘61

Lithurghia, Iaşi 1759


On the wooden church of Cîmpulung Moldovenesc 1758-‘60


Seal of the divan of the Principality of Moldova  1802-‘12


Arms: Or, a bull’s head with a six-pointed star between its horns (within a steel riveted bordure)

Crown: A ducal crown

Supporters: A trophy of flags and banners and cannon, etc.


In circumference the emblems of the Moldavian districts


The Divan or Government of Moldavia was the main institution helping the ruler in solving all the problems of domestic and foreign policy; it had to lead the country in accordance with the interests of the boyars.

The early nineteenth century Divan of the Moldavian State was composed of the following departments:

1 The Court of Administration

2 The Department of Finance

3 The Department of Foreign Affairs

4 The Department of Crime


Russian Occupation 1806-1812


Arms of Moldavia surrounded by the emblems of the districts

in the time of Alexandru Moruzi 1806-1807.

Col. Academiei Române


The field of the arms hatchet Azure


The Western Part of Moldavia after 1812


From the Division to the Association (1812-1859)

After the Turkish-Russian War of 1806-'12 Russia annexed the part of Moldavia between the Dniester and Prut which was called Bessarabia. The annexation also affected the coat of arms used in Moldova. From 1812 the field of the arms of the principality is blue. The showpiece is a mantle coverd with the Moldavian prince crown Behind it are the sword and scepter in saltire. Not much later dolphins were added for supporters.

From 1828 to 1834 Moldavia was occupied by the Russian army under General Kiseleff. He addeda cross of an order to the shield base (probably the cross of the Russian Order of St. George), but this disappeared in 1834.

After the withdrawal of the Russians the original coat of arms with the blue field was restored but later the golden field was restored

The provisional government of the principality from 1856, however, used a shield parted per fess of red over blue .


Ć For the eastern part see:  Moldova                                                         


Scarlat Callimachi 1812-‘19

Lithurgiilor, Iaşi, 1818


Russian Occupation 1828-1834


Principality of Moldavia 1834-1859


Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1849-’53 / 1854-‘56

Arh. de Stat, Iaşi


Union of Moldavia and Valachia 1859


Principality and Kingdom (1859-1947)


In 1859, Moldavia rallied with Wallachia into the United Principalities. The first ruler was Alexander John Cuza (1859-'66). In the first arms of his government the bull´s head was on a by the now customary red over blue shield. In the coats of arms quarterly from the end of his reign, the bull´s head is on a red field. For the Bucovina a coat of arms was adopted in the meantime being parted per pale of blue and red charged with a black bull´s head between three golden six/pointed stars.

In the princely arms quarterly of Charles I the arrangement of blue over red is retained. The bull´s head is on a blue field in the second  quarter and on a red field in the third,

Down from 1872, the bull´s head is finally on a red field. Six years later, the Bessarabia Governorate came to use the now vacant blue field, surrounded by a checkered bordure of the colors of the Russian flag. The final distribution of the colors was now a blue and red shield for the Austrian part, for the Romanian part a red  shield, and a blue shield for the Russian part.

In the meantime, the bull’s head, by the way often depicted in the first half of the 19th century as a bison´s head (Bison Bonasus, Bovidć), depending of the colour of the field in the natural color (proper), gold (Or) or silver (Argent). In the version of the state coat of arms of 1921, he finally is of the natural color with a golden six-pointed star between the horns, and accompanied by a golden sun and crescent.

In the last years of the reign of Charles II, Moldavia was divided into three provinces: Dunarea de Jos, Prut and, in Bessarabia, Nistrul. The arms of Dunarea de Jos barry of ten pieces of blue and red and a silver bend wavy. The arms of Prut was chequy of nine pieces of red and silver, the silver pieces charged with a black bull´s head. For Nistrul province see the entry on Moldovan Republic.


Moldavian Colors in the 19th century


until 1806/ 1849-1856






Moldavian Provinces in the 20th century


Arms of Prut province


Arms: Chequy 3´3 Gules and Argent, a bull´s head Sable in the Argent

Arms of Suceava province


Arms: Paly Gules and Azure of seven pieces, a three-towered wall-gate Or.


Arms of Dunarii province


Arms: Barry Azure and Gules of 10 piecesa bend wavy Argent.


These arms were adopted 13 December 1938 [11]


The Achievement


Achievement with angels for supporters, 1535

Church of St. Demetrius, Suceava



Achievement of Vasile Lupu, 1646


Sword and mace in saltire, crown and angels for supporters


Golia Monastery, 1660


Four lions for supporters


Achievement on the bell-tower of Cetăţuia monastery, 1669


Four lions for supporters


Fresco on the Church of Olari, Hurezu


This fresco is one of the few reperesentations preserved of the achievement of Moldavia in full color, the achievement being:


Arms: Azure, a sword and mace in saltire charged with a bull’s head surrounded by a rosary and a six pointed star in chief, Argent.

Crown: The Moldavian voievodal  crown

Supporters: Two banners in saltire and two lions reguardant


The tinctures of the arms repeated in the flag(s)


Golia Monastery, 1700




Arms of Grigore Ghica III,

Prince of Moldavia between 1764-1767 and between 1774-1777 and between 1769-1768 of Walachia

On a well near te gate of the infirmary of St. Spiridon in Iaşş, built in 1765


Stamp on the leather cover of a French-turkish dictionary1805

(Bibl. Acad. Rom. Mss. orientale, nr. 240)


Frontispiece of The lives of the saints of the month of March 1

(Vieţile sfinţilor din luna martie) Neamţ Monastery, 1813


Frontispiece of the Civil Code  of  the Principality of Moldavia, 1816


Arms in the church of Neamţ  Monastery, after 1821


Russian Occupation 1828-1834






Principality of Moldavia 1834-1859






Russian Occupation 1853-1854


Manual of Administration, 1855

By Grigore Alexandru Ghica, voievod 1849-’53 / 1854-‘56


Deputy of the provisional government


Seal of the Caimakám of the Principality of Moldavia, 1858


Caimacám:  Administrator ad-interim of Moldavia and Walachia until the installation of the new Lord.


Union of Moldavia and Valachia 1859


Seal of Alexander Ioan Cuza as a Lord of Moldavia, 1859

Muzeul de Istorie Naturală





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© Hubert de Vries 2017-05-23




[1] Berghe, Louis Vanden & Leon de Meyer: Urartu. Een vergeten cultuur uit het bergland Armenië. Gent, 1983. Afb. 35.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinaia_lead_plates. In this article I will act as if the Tablets are original.

[3] Stefanoski-Al Dabija, Branislav C.: Din Arhivele Daciei. Tetovo, 2006. https://dinarhiveledaciei.wordpress.com/

[4] The Urartian battle array consisted of an outer ring of lions, a second ring of bulls and an inner ring of lions again. Such a battle array was also copied in India, one of the rings replaced by elephants.

[5] Stefanoski-Al Dabija, Branislav C.: Din Arhivele Daciei. Tetovo, 2006. https://dinarhiveledaciei.wordpress.com/. 1 Sigiliul

[6] This section based on the Wikipedia article about Dragoş. Rădvan, Laurenţiu (2010). At Europe's Borders: Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-18010-9. Deletant, Dennis (1986). "Moldavia between Hungary and Poland, 1347-1412". The Slavonic and East European Review. 64 (2): 189–211.

[7] Cernovodeanu p. 83.

[8] Ć See also: http://graiesc.md/gallery.html?galAlbum=15

[9] Chiflet, Johan Jacob: Insignia Gentilitia Equitum ordinis velleris aurie. Antwerpen, MDCXXXII, p. 155; Maurice, Jean Baptiste: Le Blason des Armoiries de tous les Chevaliers de l’Ordre de la Toison d’Or. Den Haag, 1667,  p. 299. 

[10] Vitezovic, Ritter, Paulus alias: Stemmatographia, sive armorum Illyricorum delineatio, descriptio et restitutio, 1701.

[11] Der Herold, 1940 p. A40.

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