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Part 1





The Principalities in Personal Union

The United Principalities


The Kingdom

The republic

Armed Forces








In the Middle Ages, Romanians were divided among three distinct principalities: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania. The First Bulgarian Empire ruled over most of the territory of present-day Romania from the 7th century to the early 11th century. Later on, the Pechenegs occupied the steppes north of the Black Sea (8th–12th century) and by the 10th century they were in control of all the lands between the Don and lower Danube rivers. During the 11th and 12th century, the nomadic confederacy of the Cumans and (Eastern) Kipchaks were the dominant force over the vast territories stretching from as far as present-day Kazakhstan, southern Russia, Ukraine, down to southern Moldavia and western Wallachia

After the Magyar conquest (10-11th century), Transylvania had become an autonomous voivodeship led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary until the 16th century. Several Kings of Hungary invited settlers from Central and Western Europe, such as the Saxons, to come to Transylvania and occupy the region. The Szeklers were brought to southeastern Transylvania as border guards. Romanians are mentioned by the Hungarian documents (township called Olahteluk) in the 13th century (1283) in Bihar County. The "land of Romanians" (Terram Blacorum) appeared in Fogaras, and this area was mentioned under the name "Olachi" in 1285. After the collapse of the Hungarian Kingdom (following the disastrous Battle of Mohács, 1526) the region became the independent Principality of Transylvania until 1711


By 1541, the entire Balkan peninsula and most of Hungary became Ottoman provinces. In contrast, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, came under Ottoman suzerainty, but kept full internal autonomy and, until the 18th century, some external independence. During this period, the Romanian lands were characterised by some distinguished rulers like Vasile Lupu and Dimitrie Cantemir in Moldavia, Matei Basarab and Constantin Brâncoveanu in Wallachia, and Gabriel Bethlen in Transylvania. At that time the Russian Empire appeared to become the political and military power which threatened the Romanian principalities.

John II Zapolya, (1540-’51), moved his royal court to Alba Iulia in Transylvania, and after his abdication from the Hungarian throne, he became the first "Prince of Transylvania". His Edict of Turda was the first decree of religious freedom in the modern European history (1568). In the aftermath Transylvania was ruled by mostly Calvinist Hungarian princes (until the end of the 17th century), and Protestantism flourished in the region.

After the Ottoman Empire had been defeated by the Russians, it restored the Danube ports of Turnu, Giurgiu and Braila to Wallachia and agreed to give up its commercial monopoly and also recognized freedom of navigation on the Danube, by Treaty of Adrianople (1829). Alongside with that, the political autonomy of the Romanian principalities grew as their rulers were elected for life by a Community Assembly which was made up of boyars, a method used to reduce political instability and Ottoman intervantions. Following the war, Romanian lands became under Russian occupation until 1834 under the governance of General Pavel Kiselyov. During his rule local boyars enacted the first Romanian constitution.

As in other European countries, 1848 brought up the revolution upon Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. The goals of the revolutionaries - full independence for Moldavia and Wallachia, and national emancipation in Transylvania - remained unfulfilled, but were at the basis of the subsequent revolutions. The uprising helped the population of all three principalities recognise their unity of language and interests.

After the unsuccessful 1848 Revolution, the Great Powers rejected the Romanians' expressed desire to officially unite in a single state, forcing the Romanians to proceed alone their struggle against the Turks. Heavily taxed and badly administered under the Ottoman Empire, in 1859, people's representatives in both Moldavia and Wallachia each elected the same "Domnitor" (ruling Prince of the Romanians) Alexandru Ioan Cuza.

Thus, Romania was created as a personal union albeit that it did not include Transylvania, where the upper class and the aristocracy remained mainly Hungarian, although Romanian nationalist spirit inevitably ran up against the Hungarian nationalism at the end of the 19th century. As in the previous 900 years, Austria-Hungary, especially under the Dual Monarchy of 1867, kept the territory firmly in control, even in parts of Transylvania where Romanians constituted a vast majority.

In a 1866 coup d'état, Cuza was exiled and replaced by Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who was appointed Domnitor (Ruling Prince) of the United Principality of Romania, as Prince Carol of Romania.

Romania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire after the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 in which it fought on the Russian side.

In the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Romania was finally officially recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers. In return, Romania ceded the district of Bessarabia to Russia "in exchange" for the access to the ports on the Black Sea shore, and acquired Dobruja.




The Principalities in Personal Union


Sigismund Bathory


Voivode 11.05.1581-1586

Prince of Transilvania 1586-1597

Prince of Valachia 20.05.1595

Prince of Moldavia 03.06.1595

Knight of the Fleece n°  284,  1596

Prince of Transilvania 1598 - 1599

1601 - 26.07.1602


In 1595, at Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia), Sigismund Báthory signed a treaty with Michael the Brave, the Voivod of Wallachia, in which Wallachia came under sovereignty of Transylvania, requiring Sigismund to send Michael the Brave an aid for fighting the Ottomans.

On August 13, 1595 at the Battle of Călugăreni near the Neajlov river, Michael defeated a Turkish army led by Sinan Pasha. Despite the victory Michael, having too few troops to continue the war, retreated toward Transylvania. Joining Sigismund Báthory's army led by István Bocskay, they liberated Târgovişte (8 October 1595), Bucharest (12 October 1595) and Brăila. Wallachia was liberated on 29 October 1595.

In April 1598 Sigismund resigned as Prince of Transylvania in favor of Emperor Rudolf, in exchange for the duchy of Opole in Silesia. As Duke of Opole he also was a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. He reversed his decision in October 1598, and then resigned again in favor of Cardinal Andrew Báthory, his cousin. This allowed Transylvania to fall under the influence of the King of Poland. Michael the Brave reestablished an alliance with Emperor Rudolf, began a campaign against Andrew on 5 October 1599, and became Prince of Transylvania in November 1599, while the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta entered Transylvania from the west at the same time.

In 1600, however, Sigismund at the head of an army of Poles and Cossacks, attempted to recover his throne again, but was routed by Michael the Brave, voivode of Moldavia and Wallachia, at Suceava. In February 1601 the diet of Kolozsvár (Cluj) reinstated him, but again he was driven out, after the Battle of Goroszló, by Michael the Brave and general Giorgio Basta, never to return.



The arms of Moldavia, Transilvania and Wallachia

and the personal arms of Sigismund Bathory and his wife Mary of Austria

Sammlung von wappen aus verschiedenen besonders deutschen ländern by Joannis Zamoschi, chancellor

Ca. 1600. BSB Cod. icon. 307. Fol. 227 (detail)


Sigismund Bathory was the first who united the arms of Moldavia, Wallachia andTransilvania on one shield.

Print of the seal of Sigismund Bathory, 1595

(the original stamp in the National Museum of Budapest)


Seal: Four coats of arms: In chief: The Empire, charged with Báthory; in base: Moldavia; on the dexter: per fess, the chief of the Székely Nation, the base of the Saxon Nation; on the sinister: per fess the chief of Wallachia, the base of Nova Plantatio.

Legend: sig d.g. tra. mol.val. tra. et sac . rom . imp . prin . par . rechvn . dom . sic com .


The arms of Sigismund Bathory as a Knight of the Fleece [1]


The arms of Sigismund Báthory is described by Johan Chiflet in 1632. The blazoning reads:



Hault & Puissant Prince, Sigismond Bathory Prince de Transylvanie

Portoit de l’Empire; l’aigle chargé sur l’aile droicte d’un R, sur la senestre d’un A; sur la queüe, d’un autre A, tous trois d’or: Sur la poictrine d’un escusson éscartelé:

Transilvanie: Au I. D’or, a un aigle naissant, de sable; la teste costoyée, a droitte, d’un croissant

            tourné d’or, a gauche d’un estoille a six poinctes, de mesmes; soustenu de gueulles, a

            sept montagnes d’argent, sommées d’autant de chasteaux de mesmes.

......       Au II d’argent, a unde teste de bufle affrontée, de sable; au canton dextre du chef,

            un croissant d’or; au senestre, une etoille de mesmes.

Corvin  Au III, d’or, a un corbeau contourné, de sable, la teste retournée a dextre; tenent au bec

            une double croix de gueulles, au pied long, mis en bande.

......       Au IV d’argent, a un arbre de sinople, au fruicts d’or, tenu de deux Turcs, vestus de

            gueulles, au turbans d’or; au canton dextre du chef, un croissant; au senestre, une estoille             comme dessus.

Bathory Sur le tout, de gueulles, a un machoire de loup contournée, d’argent.

Heaume couronné d’or a raions, a un hault fleuron sur le devant.

Timbre: un vol adossé, de sable, l’aile droicte chargée d’une R, senestre d’un A d’Or; entre les deux, un autre A, de mesmes, sur le fleuron de la Couronne. Hachements d’or et de sable. [2]


Æ A modern rendering (2001) by Tudor-Radu Tiron in the head of this article


Andreas Bathory

† 31.X.1599

Prince of Transilvania 21.III.1599


Arms of Andrew Báthory 1599


Arms: Quarterly: 1 Or, an eagle issuant Sable a sun radiant and a crescent in chief (Hungarian and Székely Nation); 2. Gules, seven towers Argent (Saxon Nation); 3. Argent, a bull’s head Sable, with a five-pointed star between its horns Or (Moldavia); 4. Or, an eagle (alias raven) reguardant Sable, a latin cross in its beak Or, in chief a sun radiant and a crescent of the last (Walachia). Escutcheon: Báthori.

Crown: A crown of three large and two smaller leaves, over it a cardinal’s hat with 2´6 fiocchi Gules.

Supporters: Four cherubim


í This picture is taken from Siebmachers Wappenbuch. [3] For one reason or another the authors consequently gave the arms of Transilvania the tinctures of the arms as granted by Maria Theresia in 1765, i.e. per fess the chief Azure, an eagle Sable issuant from a fess Gules and in chief a sun radiant and a crescent Or, and in base Or, seven towers Gules. As a result, because Siebmacher is of great authority, the arms of Transilvania from the period of the reign of Sigismund Báthori until the reign of Maria Theresia are usually incorrectly represented now.

Here, as the writers apparently did not know about the arms of Sigismund as described by Chiflet, also the arms of Moldavia and Walachia are incorrectly hatched.


As he retreated from the battle of Şelimbăr, Andrew Báthory was killed by anti-Báthory Székely on 3 November near Sândominic and Michael the Brave gave him a princely burial in the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Gyulafehérvár. 


Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul


Lord of Walachia 1593-1601

Lord of Transilvania 1599-1600

Lord of Moldavia 1600



Emblem: The arms of Moldova supported by two princes. In chief the Wallachian eagle between a sun and a crescent. In base two lions supporting a sword upright (Kantakouzenos) standing on seven hills symbolizing the Saxon nation.

Legend: X NML BJE MLRDIE / X IO MIHAILI UGROVLAHISCOI VOEVOD ARDILSCOI MOLD ZEMLI. (By the grace of God, I, Michael Voivod of Wallachia, lord of Transilvania and Moldavia).


Radu Mihnea 



The arms of Walachia and Moldavia on the Tomb of Radu Mihnea


Antioh Cantemir



Phanariot Rulers



The person raised to the office of Prince was usually the chief Dragoman of the Porte, and was consequently well versed in contemporary politics and the statecraft of the Ottoman government.

The new Prince, who obtained his office in exchange for a heavy bribe (not a new requirement in itself), proceeded to the country which he was selected to govern, and whose language he usually did not know. Once the new Princes were appointed, they were escorted to Iași or Bucharest by retinues composed of their families, favourites, and their creditors (from whom they had borrowed the bribe funds). The Prince and his appointees counted on recouping these in as short a time as possible and in collecting an amount sufficient to live on after the termination of their brief time in office.

Taking the two principalities together, 31 princes from 11 different families ruled during the Phanariote epoch. Many times they were exiled or even executed: of these 31 princes, seven suffered a violent death, and a few were executed at their own courts of Bucharest or Iași.


In the time of Phanariot rule several heraldic deveces were developed, all displaying the buul’s head of Moldavia and the eagle of Walachia.

These emblems were represented free-standing, united in a shield or represented on two shields in alliance.

For external ornaments were added a crown of crowns and the mace and sword of Moldavia.

Supporters of the arms per pale or the arms in alliance are rare. Initialy we meet angel-like creatures and by way of exeption angels. Later the arms in alliance are suooirted by the russian eagle symbolizing quite literalle the support of the Russian Empire of both principalities in their struggle with the Porte.


Mihai Racoviţa


Lord of Moldavia 1703-1705; 1707-1709; 1715-1726

Lord of Walachia 1730-1731; 1741-1744



Voievod Michael Racoviţă grants Sinai monastery

the privilege to take a great amount of customs, 6 March 1731


Seal of Mihail Racoviţa, 1741 [4]


Bull’s head of Moldavia, eagle with cross of Walachia, crown, sword and mace and hovering angels. In base a tree supported by a man with a bow-and-arrow and a woman


Nicolae Mavrocordat

1st time 1709-1710

2nd time 1711-1715


The arms of Moldavia and Valachia in alliance

Despre datorii (about debts), București, 1719

By: Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat)


Grigore II Ghica





12 martie 1734, Bucureşti. Grigore al II-lea Ghica voievod acordă scutiri de dări mânăstirii Mărgineni


Liturghie (Liturgy), București, 1747

By Neofit, Episcopul Râmnicului


Molitvenic, Iași, 1749


Constantin Mavrocordat


Prince of Wallachia 1731-33, 1735-41, 1744-’48, 1756, 1761-’63.

Prince of Moldavia 1733-‘35, 1741-43, 1748-‘49, 1769.


Apostol, Buzău, 1743 (contributor: Neofit, Episcopul Râmnicului)

Seal of Constantin Mavrocordat


Similar to the seal of Mihail Racoviţa 1741: Bull’s head of Moldavia, eagle with cross of Walachia, crown, sword and mace and hovering angels. In base a tree supported by a man with a bow-and-arrow and a woman


Johan Mavrocordat




Constantin Racoviţa

1749-1753; 1756-1757


Ceaslov, Iași, 1750

(contribuitor: Nichifor Peloponezianul, Mitropolit al Moldovei)


Russo-Turksh War



On September 17, 1769 the Russians began their initial campaign over the Dniester into Moldavia.They continued the advance south into Wallachia, occupying its capital Bucharest on 17 Nov

From the capital of Bucharest the Russians fanned out through the principality, only later being challenged by Grand Vizier Mehmed Emin Pasha at Kagul on 1 Aug  1770.

A ceasefire between Russia and the Ottoman Empire commenced on 30 May 1772, but real negotiations did not begin until 8 August. On 20 June 1774 the Russian army under the command of Alexander Suvorov managed to rout the Ottoman Army near Kozludzha. Russia used this victory to force Turkey to acquiesce to Russia’s preferences in the treaty of 1771.

On 21 1774, the Ottoman Empire had to sign perforce the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. The treaty did not overtly take away vast territories from the Ottomans - Poland had already paid the price of alienated territory.

As a consequence of the treaty, the Ottomans ceded the northwestern part of Moldavia (later known as Bukovina) to the Habsburg Empire and the Russians retreated from Modavia and Wallachia.


5 Kopek, 1771

Æ 43/46 mm, 41.15 g, bronze

Obverse: bicephalic eagle of the Russian Empire, with crowned heads and with crown above, holding a sword and a scepter in its talons, standing on two shields bearing the Moldavian and Walachian coats of arms, two horizontal lines and face value 5 KOPIEKI, in Cyrillic letters, below Latin letter S (possibly from Sadagura)

Reverse: a column, atop a crowned shield bearing the monogram of empress Catherine II (the Great) of Russia, at left (picture position) a drum, a spear, fasces atop (bundle of rods bound about an axe with projecting blade) and three flags, a spear(?) at right, a horsetail and again three flags, at the base of the column a Phrygian bonnet, year 1771



Constantin Moruzi

Lord of Moldavia 1777-1782


Penticostarion, București, 1800

By: Dositei Filitti, Mitropolit al Ungrovlahiei



Alexandru Ioan Mavrocordat


Constantin Moruzi

Lord of Moldavia 1777-1782



Mihai I Suţu



Liturghie (Liturgy), Iași, 1794

By Iacob Stamati, Mitropolit of Moldavia


Alliance of Moldavia and Walachia. Crown, mace and sword, armory


Alexandru Moruzi

* 1750 - †1816

Lord in Moldavia: 1792-1793; 1802-1806; 1806-1807

Lord inȚara Românească: 1793-1796; 1799-1801


Seal of Alexandru Moruzi, 1792 [5]


The arms crowned and integrated of Moldavia and Walachia and supported by a male and a female ruler. Legend and the emblems of the Moldavian districts.


The arms of Moldavia and Walachia in alliance supported by eagles

On: Pravoslavnica învățătură (Orthodox teaching), București, 1794

 By: Dositei Filitti, Mitropolit al Ungrovlahiei)


The achievements of Moldavia and Walachia in alliance


These are the achievements of state of Moldavia and Walachia. Alexander Moruzi was never a prince of Moldavia and of Walachia at the same time


Constantin Ypsilanti 




Russian occupation of Wallachia and Moldavia 1806-1812


From 1806, during Russian occupation of the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, Russia encouraged their provisional union under Prince Constantine Ypsilanti. Russia preferred their union for improved relations with the Principalities and their formal union was planned for 1830.

Ypsilantis' plans were ruined by the peace of Tilsit and in 1807 he emigrated with his family to Russia.


Eastern Moldavia and Bessarabia annexed by Russia, 1812


The arms of Moldavia and Wallachia in alliance supported by the Russian Eagle

From: Fotino, Dionisie: Istoria generală a Daciei. Wien, 1818-’19, Frontispiece


Alexandru Suţu

Lord of Moldavia 28.06-10.07.1801; 19.09-01.10.1802

Lord of Țării Românești 20.06.-02.07.1802;13-30.08.1802 (caimacam) 12-24.08.1806; 12.1806; 05-17 11.1818; 19-31.01.1821 

Alexander Suţu grants St Catherien Monastery the vineyard of Soci and freedom of taxes

Bucarest, 30 October 1819


Emblems of Russia, Moldavia and Walachia. Lion and banners.


Russian occupation of Wallachia and Moldavia 1828-1834

Joint Russian Ottoman Occupation of Wallachia 1848-1851

Russian occupation of Wallachia and Moldavia 1853-1854

Ottoman Occupation of Wallachia 1854

Austrian occupation of Wallachia 1854-1856


Protectorate by Treaty of Paris 1856-1859




Obv.: Arms of Moscow and Bucarest. L.: VOX POPULI VOX DEI (TheVoice of the People is the Voice of God), 1 & 9 October 1857

Rev.: Achievement of the United Pricipalities, the arms of the Principalities in alliance. L.: DIEU PROTÉGE LA ROUMANIE  (God Bless Romania).



By Treaty of Paris of 30 March 1856 Moldavia and Wallachia would stay under nominal Ottoman rule, but would be granted independent constitutions and national assemblies, which were to be monitored by the victorious powers. A project of a referendum was to be set in place to monitor the will of the peoples regarding unification. Moldavia received the south of Bessarabia (Budjak), creating a buffer between the Ottoman Empire and Russia in the west. Romania, which would later be formed from the two territories, would largely remain an Ottoman puppet-state


Achievement in the head of the paper Zimbrul și Vulturul  (Bison and Eagle) of 11.12.1858


The dolphins in the quarter for Moldavia, the bison and the eagle for supporters


Principatele Unite



Alexandru Ioan Cuza



Achievement of the United Principalities in the time of Alexander Cuza

Cozia Monastery


On his seal manufactured in Bucharest, 1859 the legend: noi alecsandru joan 1 domn principatelor unite moldova si terra romaneasca. (Min. Af. Ext. Arh. Ist. Vol. 118 bis, dos 3/Comisia Centrala de Focsani, f. 230)


On a like seal manufactured in Iasi, 1859 the legend reads: noi alecsandru joan i dom principatelor unite moldova si valahia. (Bibl. Acad RSR Cab. Num. inv. nr. M 3452.)


Arms: 1|2: 1. Tierced per fess Gules, Or and Azure, a rising eagle Sable with a latin cross in its beak Or; 2. Per fess Gules and Azure a bull’s head with a five pointed star between its horn Argent.

Crown: A princely crown

Supporters:  Two dolphins, heads in base proper and four national flags in saltire

Compartment: Two cannon and branches of oak in saltire

Motto: HONOR ET PATRIA in white lettering on a ribbon Azure

Mantle: Purpure fringed and tasseled Or, lined ermine and princely crowned.



On his seal manufactured in Iasi, 1859 the legend: noi alecsandru joan i dom principatelor unite moldova si valahia. (Bibl. Acad RSR Cab. Num. inv. nr. M 3452.)

On his seal manufactured in Bucharest, 1859 the legend: noi alecsandru joan 1 domn principatelor unite moldova si terra romaneasca. (Min. Af. Ext. Arh. Ist. Vol. 118 bis, dos 3/Comisia Centrala de Focsani, f. 230)  [6]


First achievement of Alexandru Ioan Cuza after the union of the Principalities, 1859.

Design  of  D. Pecurariu.


Arms: 1|2 D.: ½ Azure and Or, a rising eagle Sable with a latin cross in its beak Or over all;  S.: ½ Gules and Azure, a bull’s head Sable with a star between its horns Or over all, Crown.: Een hertogskroon met omgeslagen hermelijnen rand.

Supporters:  Two dolphins, heads in base proper

Mantle.: Purpere, fringed and tasseled Or, princely crowned  and upheld by two standards in saltire the one on the dexter numbered ‘V’  crested with a  laurel crown a the eagle from the arms, the sinister mubered ‘XXX’, crested with a laurel crown and the bull’s head from the arms. 


Alexandru Ioan Cuza



Design for an achievement of Romania (29´23 cm)

Watercolor by Carol Popp de Szathmary,

by appointment of the Princely Cabinet at Bucarest, Oct. 1863.

Muzeul Naţional de Artă al României – BUCUREŞTI. Inv. nr. 29291/4694


Arms: ¼: 1&4 Azure, the Aquila Walahica Or, in his claws a sword and a sceptre; 2&3 Gules, a bull's head Or between its horns a 6-pointed star Argent; In fess point: tierced per fess Gules, Or and Azure.

Crown: A voivodal crown

Order: The star of the "Ordinului Unirii" (never founded)

Supporters: Two dolphins respecting, heads in base, ppr, and two Roman legio­nary standards, the D. charged with the cypher "V" and the S. with the cypher "XXIV" Or.

Motto: toti in unum (All United) in black lettering on a ribbon Argent.

Mantle: Purpure etc. with a princely crown upheld by two Roman standards in saltire




Carol I Hohenzollern


Independent 1878


Arms: ½: 1&3 Azure and Or, the Aquila Walahica ppr, in sinister chief a sun Or; 2&3 Azure and Gules, a bull's head ppr between its horns a mullet Argent; E.: Quarterly Argent and Sable (Hohenzollern)

Crown: A princely crown

Supporters: D.: A Dacian woman, vested white, in her right hand an "Arpi" (Dacian dagger), ppr; S. a lion guardant ppr.

Motto: nihil sine deo (Nothing Without God) in golden lettering on a ribbon Azure.

Mantle: Purpure etc, princely crowned.

By law of 30.03.1867.

The Law reads   (Monitorul Oficial al României, nr. 75 din 1867):


Art. I. Armele Românieĭ se fixéză după cum urméză:

Art. II. Scutul are forma unuĭ pătrat lung: partea inferióră rotund̗ită la ambele unghiurĭ și terminată la mijlocul baseĭ printr'un vîrf. Scutul se împarte în patru secțiunĭ, prin douĕ liniĭ încrucișate în mijloc. În secțiunea din drépta sus, pe albastru, în cea din stânga jos, pe galben, figuréză aquila romană cu capul spre aripa stângă și cu o cruce de aur în gură, simbolul Țăriĭ-românescĭ. În secțiunea din stânga, de sus, pe albastru, și în cea din drépta în jos, pe roșu, figuréză capul de bour cu o stea între córne, simbolul Moldoveĭ. În ambele secțiunĭ superióre ale scutuluĭ, în stânga și în dreapta linieĭ despărțitóre, figuréză sórele și luna. Pe scut va fi coróna regală.

Art. III. În mijlocul scutuluĭ României figuréză scutul M. S. Domnitorului, scartelat, avênd în secțiunea de sus din drépta și cea din jos din stânga în alb, iar cea din stânga de sus și cea din drépta de jos în negru. Scutul are drept suporțĭ: în stânga un leŭ, ér în drépta o femeiă în costumul femeilor dace, care ține în mâna stângă arma Dacilor, Art. IV. Pe suporțĭ este așed̗ată o eșarpă albastră, pe care este scrisă devisa familieĭ Hohenzollern: Nihil Sine Deo.

Art. V. Pavilionul este de colóre roșie, căptușit cu hermină, avênd d'asupra coróna regală.

Art. VI. Drapelul Domnului ca și acela al armateĭ, va avé dispuse colorile naționale în modul următor: albastru perpendicular și alături cu hampa (lemnul stindarduluĭ), galbenul în mijloc, roșul la margine flotând. În mijloc vor fi armele Țăriĭ.

Art. VII. Drapelul guardeĭ orășenescĭ va fi întocmaĭ ca al armateĭ, păstrând în locul armelor țăriĭ însemnele orașuluĭ respectiv și No. legiuniĭ.

Art. VIII. Drapelul autorităților civile va fi ca cel al armateĭ, fără a purtà armele țăriĭ în mijloc.

Art. IX. Drapelul marineĭ de rĕsbel va fi întocmaĭ ca cel al armateĭ, cu armele țăriĭ în mijloc. Drapelul marineĭ de comerciŭ va fi întocmaĭ ca acel al marineĭ de resbel, fără însă a purtà la mijloc armele țăriĭ.



On the seal of  Carol I the supporters exchanged. L.: carol I prin gratia al dumnezeu si prin vuinta nationala dom al romanilor.  




Arms: ¼ 1. Azure, the Aquila Walahica with sword and sceptre, Or, in dexter chief a sun radiant Or; 2. Gules, a bull's head, between its horns a six-pointed star and in sinister chief a crescent all Or; 3. Gules, a lion rampant issuant from a crown, in dexter chief a six-pointed star Or; 4. Azure, two dolphins respecting heads in base Or. And in fess point an escutceon quarterly Argent and Sable.

Crown: A Royal crown

Supporters: Two lions coward ppr.

Motto: Nihil sine deo in golden lettering on a ribbon Azure.

Mantle: Purpure etc. corwned with a royal crown.

By law of 08.03.1872


The law reads:



Bucuresci, 10 Martie






La toți de față și viitori sănătate

Corpurile Legiuitoare au votat și noi sancționăm ce urmead̗ă:





        Art. I. Armele României se fixéd̗ă:

        Art. II. Scutul séu pavăd̗a are forma vechilor scuturi românesci, adică a unui pătrat lung rotunjit la ambele unghiuri de jos și terminat la mijlocul basei printr'un vêrf. Eară de la mijlocul laturilor înălțimii, scutul se ascute și apoi cresce earăși spre unghiurile de sus

        Linia de sus a capului (chef) este ușor înălțată în semicerc orizontal de la un unghiu spre cel-alt.

        Scutul se împarte în patru secțiuni prin 2 linii încrucișate la mijloc.

        În I-a secțiune din drépta de sus pe albastru figuread̗ă aquila romană cu capul spre aripa dréptă, cu uă cruce în gură, cu coróna Domnéscă sabia și toiagul, simbolele principatului Țěrei-Românesci, tóte de aur. În drépta aquilei sus un soare mișcând (mouvant) asemenea de aur.

        În a II-a secțiune din stênga de sus pe roșiu figuread̗ă capu de bour cu uă stea cu 6 raze între coarne simbolul principatului Moldovei, tóte de aur. În stânga bourului sus uă lună mișcând (mouvant) asemenea de aur.

        În a III-a secțiune din drépta de jos pe roșiu figuread̗ă leul ridicat, coronat códa furcată (queue fourchée) cu uă stea cu 6 raze între picióre și ieșind dintr'uă corónă de Ban, tóte de aur; simbolul banatului Craiovei.

        În a IV-a Secțiune din stânga de jos pe albastru figuréd̗ă doi delfini, cap la cap și coadele depărtate în sus, care sunt simbolul țěrmurilor Mării-Negre, tóte de aur. Pe scut va fi coróna regală.

        Art. III. În mijlocul scutului României figuréd̗ă scutul M. S. Domnitorului, scartelat, având în secțiunea I-a sus din drépta și în cea din jos din stânga alb (argint); eară în cea din stânga de sus și în cea din drépta de jos negru (sable).

        Scutul României are suporți 2 lei de culóre naturală privind scutul și cu códele trecênd între picióre, Simbolul Daciei.

        Art. IV. Sub suporți este așed̗ată uă eșarpă albastră căptușită cu roșiu pe care este scris cu aur devisa familiei Hohenzollern: Nihil Sine Deo.

        Art. V. Pavilionul este de culóre purpuriă, căptușit cu heruină (cacom) avênd d'asupra coróna regală.

        Art. VI. Drapelul Domnului ca și acela al Armatei va avea dispuse culorile naționale în modul următor:

        Albastru perpendicular și alături cu hampa (lemnul stindardului) galben în mijloc, roșiu la margine flotând. În mijloc vor fi armele țěrei.

        Art. VII. Drapelul gardei orășenesci va fi întocmai ca al armatei, păstrând în locul armelor însemnele orașiului respectiv și No. legiunii.

        Art. VIII. Drapelul autorităților civile va fi întocmai ca acel al armatei fără a purta armele țěrei în mijloc.

        Art. IX. Drapelul marinei de resbel va fi întocmai ca cel al armatei cu armele țărei în mijloc.

        Drapelul marinei de comerciu va fi întocmai ca acel al marinei de resbel fără însă a purta în mijloc armele țărei.

        Promulgăm acéstă Lege și ordonăm ca ea să fie investită cu sigiliul statului și publicată în Monitorul Oficial.


Dat în Bucuresci la 8 Martie 1872

No. 498.



Ministru secretar
de Stat la Departamentul Justiției




Æ To: Kingdom of Romania



Back to Main Page



 © Hubert de Vries 2017.03.06




[1] Maurice, Jean Baptiste, Héraut et Roy d'Armes de sa Majesté Catholique:Le Blason des Armoiries de tous les Chevaliers de l'ordre de la Toison d'or depuis la premiere institution jusques a present. A la Haye: Rammazeyn; 1667 http://data.onb.ac.at/ABO/%2BZ155062108 

[2] Chiflet, Johan Jacob: Insignia Gentilitia Equitum ordinis velleris aurie. Antwerpen, MDCXXXII, p. 155; Maurice, Jean Baptiste: Le Blason des Armoiries de tous les Chevaliers de l’Ordre de la Toison d’Or. Den Haag, 1667,  p. 299. 

[3] Siebmachers Wappenbuch Bd IV. S C. Reichenauer von Reichenau, dann G. von Csergheö, dann O. von Bárczay. Der Adel von Siebenbürgen 1898. III Wappen der einheimischen Fürsten und Genealogie iher Familien (1538) 1571-1691. Fig 17.

[4] After  Dogaru, Maria: Particularités et évolution des ornements extérieurs de l’écu dans les sceaux des princes règnants de Valachie au xviiie siècle. In: Recueil du 11e Congrès International des Sciences Généalogique et Héraldique. Liège 29 Mai - 2 Juin 1972. pp. 192-198. fig 1

[5] After Dogaru op.cit. fig 2

[6] See also: Actul de înființare al Universității „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iași (1860)


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