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United States of America

In the 18th century there existed thirteen English colonies in North America: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North-Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South-Carolina and Virginia.

Conflicts between these colonies and the motherland cuased a union between these colonies, initially called United Colonies which declared itself independent o 4 July 1776. In a subsequent war Great Britain could not bring the new nation under its control and had to recognize  the United States of America, as the new nation was then called, by Peace of Paris of 1783.




The Arms


In all the time of english colonization the king of England, later Great Britain was the sovereign in the colonies.Therefore the royal coat of arms was valid there and the royala achievement  was used by the governance of the colonies. Also there ware coats of arms used by the lower administrative instances.

After the declaration of independence the royal arms and –achievementcoul not be used any more by the new state. Therefore it was decided to make a new coat of arms and seal specially for the union.


“On July 4, 1776, after the Declaration of Independence had been read in the Continental Congress, it was ‘Resolved, That Dr. Franklin, Mr. J. Adams and Mr. Jefferson be a committee, to prepare a device for a Seal of the Unites States of North America.’

Although these distinguished committee members were among the ablest minds in the new nation, they had little knowledge of heraldry. To help convey their vision, they chose the artist Pierre Eugène Du Simitière to work with them.

Skilled in portraiture and heraldry (the state seals of Delaware and New Jersey are his designs), Du Simitière was also an avid collector of all things American and founded the first history museum in the United States.

On 13 August 1776 the four designers brought before the committee a suggestion for the design of the Great Seal. The three Congressmen suggested allegorical scenes:


Du Simitière's original (and restored) sketch of his preliminary design

Note: sketched is a two-headed eagle for Germany


“The committee reported on August 10 as follows:

“’ The shield has six quarters, parts one, coupe two. The 1st Or, a Rose enamelled gules and argent for England; the 2nd Argent, a Thistle proper for Scotland; the 3rd Vert a Harp Or for Ireland: the 4th Azure a Flower de luce Or for France; the 5th Or the Imperial Eagle Sable for Germany; and the 6th Or the Belgic Lion Gules for Holland, pointing aut the countries from which these States have been peopled. The Shield within a border Gules entwined of thirteen Scutcheons Aregent linked together by a chain or, each charged with the initial letters Sable, as follows: 1st N.H., 2nd M.B, 3d R.I., 4thd C., 5th N.Y., 6th N.J., 7th P., 8th D.C., 9th M., 10th V., 11th N., 12th S.C., 13th G., for each of the thirteen independent States of America. Supporters, Dexter the Goddess of Liberty in a corselet of Armour, alluding to the present times, holding in her right hand the Spear and Cap and with her left supporing the shields of the States; Sinister, the Goddess Justice bearing a sword in her right hand and in her left a balance. Crest, the Eye of Providence in a radiant Triangkle whose Glory extends over the sheild and beyond the Figures. Motto: E Pluribus Unum. Legend around the whole achieveent, Seal of the United States of America MDCCLXXVI.


1776 First design for the achievement of the USA on the obverse of the Great Seal (10.08.1776):


Arms: Per pale and tierced per fess: 1. Or, a rose Gules and Argent for England; 2. Argent, a thistle ppr. for Scotland; 3. Vert, a harp Or for Ireland; 4. Azure, a fleur de lys Or for France; 5. Or, an eagle sable, billed and clawed Or for Germany; 6. Or, a lion rampant Gules for Holland.

Crest: The Eye of Providence.

Supporters: Liberty and Justice



On the other side of the said Great Seal should be the following device: Pharaoh sitting in an open Chariot, a crown on his head and a sword in his hand passing through the divided waters of the Red Sea in pursuit of the Israelites: Rays from a pillow [pillar] of Fire and the Cloud, expressive of the devine Presence and Command, beaming on Moses who stand on the shore and extending his hand over the Sea causes it to overwhelm Pharaoh. Motto: Rebellion to Tyrants is Oberdience to God.’




“Two features of this design were preserved in the seal as finally adopted – the Eye of Providence in the triangle, which now appears upon the reverse, and the motto E pluribus unum. The latter was a familiar quotation to the colonistsas the motto of the Gentleman’s Magazine, and naturally suggested itself as the most appropriate  description of the new order of things, when the several colonies united in their oppesition to Great Britain.


“The device of this committee did not meet with favourable reception  and the report was laid on the table, and nothing further was done until 25 March 1779, when the matter was referred to a new committee composed of James Lovell of Mssachusetts, Scott of Virginia; and William Houstoun of Georgia.Lovell had been a teacher in the Latrin School of Boston, master of another New England school. After he came to Congress he took a part of some prominence as a member of the Committee of Foreign Affairs. Houstoun, the brother of Governor John Houstoun, was a lawyer with an English education. The committee reported 10 May 1780, the original report reading as follows:

“The Seal to be 4 inches in diameter. On one side, the Arms of the United States, as follows: The Shield charged on the Field with 13 diagonal stripes alternate red and white. Supporters, dexter, a warrior holding a sword; Sinister, a figure representing Peace bearing an Olive Branche. The Crest, a radiant constellation of 13 stars. The Motto BELLO BEL PACI. The legend round the atchievement SEAL OF THE UNITED STATES .

“’On the Reverse - The Figure of Liberty seated in a chair holding the staff and cap. The Motto SEMPER. Underneath MDCCLXXVI.

“This report was modified aso as to make the seal three inches in diameter. It advocated also ‘a miniature of the face of the Great Seal to be prepared of half the Diameter, to be affixed as the less seal of the United States.’

“In this device appeared for the first time the constellation of the thirteen stars and the thirteen alternate red and white stripes; but the latter were here diagonal, whereas they finally appeared as perpendicular. The idea followed naturally the design of the national flag, which Congress had adopted 14 June 1777.

“After debate the report was ordered to be recommitted to a new committee, composed of Middleton and Rutledge, of South Carolina, and Boudinot of New Jersey.


1780 Second design 10.05.1780


Sketch of the Great Seal of the United States
By Francis Hopkinson, May 10, 1780
Pencil and ink on paper
National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention


Arms: Tierced per bend Azure and Argent, in the second six bendlets Gules.

Crest: Thirteen five-pointed stars Argent within a halo and a bordure of clouds ppr.

Supporters: A warrior and Peace.

Motto: bello vel paci (War or Peace)



Perennial Power /MDCCLXXVI


“Two years later the records show activity in the effort to evolve a suitable device, and in the meantime the committee reports had been referred to the Secretary of Congress, Charles Thomson. The name of Arthur Lee, who had returned from France and was now a member of Congress from Virginia, also appears as one of the members to whom the designs were submitted. It was at this time that the assistance of William Barton, A.M., a prominent resident of Philadelphia, was sought. He submitted the following: ‘Device for an Armorial Achievement for the Great Seal of the United States of America, in Congress assembled; agreeable to the Rules of Heraldry – proposed by William Barton  A.M. Arms: Barry of thirteen pieces, Argent & Gules; on a Canton, Azure as many stars disposed in a Circle, of the first; a Pale, Or, surmounted of another, of the third; charged, in Chief, with an Eye surrounded with a Glory, proper; and, in the Fess-point, an Eagle displayed on the Summit of a Doric Column which rests on the base of the Escutcheon, both as the Stars.

“’CREST: On the Helmet of Burnished Gold damasked, grated with six Bars, and surmounted of a Cap of Dignity, Gules, turned up Ermine, a Cock armed with gaffs, proper:

“’ SUPPORTERS: On the dexter side: the Genius of America (represented by a Maiden with loose Auburn Tresses, having on her head a radiated Crown of Gold, encircled with a sky-blue fillet spangled with silver stars, and clothed in a long, loose, white garment, bordered with Green: from her right shoulder to her left side, a scarf semé of Stars, the Tinctures thereof the same as in the Canton; and round the Waist a purple Girdle fringed Or; embroidered, Argent, with the word “Virtue”: -resting her interior Hand on the Escutcheon, and holding in the other the proper Standard of the United States, having a Dove, argent, perched on the top of it. On the sinister side: a Man in complete Armour, his sword-belt, Azure, fringed with Gold; the Helmet inscribed with a Wreath of Laurel, and crested with one white and two blue Plumes; supporting with his dexter Hand the Escutcheon and holding, in the exterior, a Lance with the point sanguinated; and upon it a Banner displayed, Vert, - in the Fess-point an Harp, Or, stringed with Silver, between a star in Chief, two Fleurs-de-lis in Fess, and a pair of Swords in Saltier, in Base, all Argent. The Tenants of the Escutcheon stand on a Scroll, on which the following Motto: “DEO FAVENTE,”which alludes to the Eye in the Arms, meant for the Eye of Providence. Over the crest, in a scroll, this motto – “VIRTUS SOLA INVICTA” – which requires no comment.

“’The thirteen pieces, barways, which fill up the field of the Arms, may represent the several States; and the same Number of Stars upon a blue Canton, disposed in a Circle, represent a new Constellation, which alludes to the new Empire, formed in the World, by the Confederation of those States. Their Disposition, in the form of a circle, denotes the perpetuity of its continuance, the Ring being the Symbol of Eternity. The Eagle displayed is the symbol of Supreme Power & Authority, and signifies the Congress; the Pillar, upon which it rests, is used as the Hieroglyphic of Fortitude and Constancy; and it’s being of Doric order, (Which is the best proportioned and most agreeable to nature) & composed of several Members or parts, all, taken together, forming a beautiful composition of Strength, Congruity & Usefulness, it may with great propriety signify a well planned Government. The ERagle, being placed on the summit of the Column, is emblematical of the Sovereignty of the Government of the United States; and, as further expressive of that Idea, those two charges or figures are borne in a Pale, which extends  across the thirteen pieces, into which the Escutcheon is divided. The signification of the Eye has been already explained.

“’ The Helmet is such as appertaines to Sovereignty and the Cap is used as the Token of Freedom & Excellency. It was formerly worn by Dukes “Because,” say Guillim,  The Ha a more worthy Government than other subjects.” The Cock is distinguished for two most excellent Qualities, necessary in a free country, viz: Vigilance & Fortitude.

“’The genius of the American Confederated Republic is denoted by her blue Scarf & Fillet, glittering with Stars, and by the flag of Congress which she displays. Her dress is white edged with green colours, emblematical of Innocence and Youth. Her purple girdle and radiated crown indicate  her sovereignty: the word “Virtue” on the former is to show, that that should be her principal ornament, and the radiated Crown, that no Earthly Crown shall ruler her. The Dove on the Top of the American Standard denotes the mildness and lenity of her Government.

“’The Knight in Armour wit his bloody Lance represents the military Genius of the American Empire, armed in Defence of its just Rights. His blue Belt and blue feathers indicate his Countr, & the White Plume is in Compliment to our gallant Ally. The Wreath of Laurel round his helmet is expressive of his success. The Green Field of the Banner denotes Youth and Vigor, the Harp is emblematical of the several States acting in Harmony and Concert; the Star, in Chief,  has reference to America, as principal in the contest; the two fleurs-de-lis are borne as a grateful Testimonial of the support given to her by France; and the two swords, crossing each other signify a state of War. This Tenant and his Flag relate totally to America at the time of her Revolution . . .  .



“It is here that the eagle appears for the first time.

“Barton submitted another device of a similar character, so far as the obverse is concerned: ‘Device for and Armorial Atchievement & Reverse of a Great Seal, for the United States of America: proposed by William Barton Esq., A.M.


1782 Third design, version B. of William Barton, 1782.



“’Blazoned according to the Laws of Heraldry: - Barry of hirteen pieces, Argent & Gules; on a pale, Or, a pillar of the Doric Ordder, Vert, reaching from the Base of the Escutcheon to the Honor point; and from the summit thereof, a Phoenix in Flames with Wings expanded proper; the whole within a Border, Azure, charged with as many stars as pieces barways, of the first. Crest: On a Helmet of Burnished Gold, damasked, grated with six Bars, a Cap of Liberty, Vert; with an Eagle displayed Argent thereon holding in his dexter Talon a Sword, Or, having a wreath of Laurel suspended from the point; and in the sinister, the Ensign of the United States, proper.

“’SUPPORTERS: On the dexter side, the Genius of the American Confederated Republic: represented by a Maiden, with flowing Auburn Tresses; clad in a long, loose white Garment, bordered with Green; having a sky-blue scarf, charged with Stars as in the Arms, reaching across her waist from her right shouder to her left Side; and, on her Head, a radiated crown of Gold, encircled with an azure Fillet spangled with Silver Stars; round her Waist, a purple Girdle, embroidered with the word “Virtus” in silver: - a Dove, proper, perched on her dexter Hand. On the Sinister Side, an America Warrior, clad in an uniform Coat, of blue faced with Buff, and in his Hat a Cockade of black and white Ribbons; in his left hand a Baton Azure semé of stars Argent. Motto over the crest – “IN VINDICIAM LBERTATIS.” Motto under the arms – “VIRTUS SOLA INVICTA.” Reverse of the seal: A Pyramid of thirteen Strata (or Steps) Or. In the Zenith, an eye surrounded with a Glory, proper. In a Scroll, above – or in the Margin “DEO FAVENTE.”  The Exergue “PERENNIS.”

“’REMARKS: The Imperial Eagle of Germany (which is Sable, and with two Heads) is represented with a sword in one Talon, and a sceptre in the other. The Phoenix is emblematical of the expiring Liberty of Britain, revived by her Descendants in America. The Dove (perched on the right Hand of the Genius of America) is Emblematical of Innocence and Virtue. The Sword (held by the Eagle) is the Symbol of Courage, Authority and Power. The Flag or Ensign denotes the United States of America, of the sovereignty of which the Eagle is expressive. The Pillar is the Hieroglyphic of Constancy and Fortitude, and is likewise emblematical of Beauty, Strength and Order. The Pyramid signifies Strength and Duration.’

“Here the frist design of the reverse of the seal is clearly fixed; ith being the same as the one finally adopted, except for the motto.


“ The next device was by tthe Secretary of Congress, Charles Thomson:

“’Device for an Armorial Atchievement and Reverse of a Great Seal for the United States in Congress Assembled.

“’ARMS: On a field Chevrons composed of seven pieces on one side & six on the other, joined together at the top in such wise that each of the six bears against or is supported by & supports two of the opposite side alternate red and white. The shield borne on the breast of an American Eagle, on the Wing and rising proper. In the dexter talom of the eagle an olive branch & in the sinister a bundle of arrows. Over the head of the Eagle a constellation of stars surrounded with bright rays and at a little distance clouds. In the bill of the Eagle a scroll with the words “E PLURIBUS UNUM.” – Reverse: A pyramid unfinished. In the zenith an eye in a triangle surrounded with a glory, proper.

“’Over the eye these words, “ANNUIT CŒPTIS.” On the base of the pyramid the numerical letters, “MDCCLXXVI.” and underneath these words, “ NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM.”

“’ N.B. the Head and tail of the American bald Eagle are White, the body and wings of a lead or dove colour.’

“Here, it will ne observed, a step further was made. The eagle bearing the shield on its breast, grasping the olive branch and arrows, and the constellation surrounded by clouds appear as they now actually are. The motto, too, is the same, and is held in the same way. The reverse appers as it was finally adopted.

“ The words ‘Annuit cœptis novus ordo seclorum’ have commonly been taken as one motto, meaning ‘the new series of ages is favorable to our undertakings;’ and ‘novus ordo sclorum,’ meaning simply ‘a new order of centuries.’

“The words were probably adapted from two passages in Virgil – ‘Audacibus annue cœptis’ (favor my daring undertaking), and ‘Magnus ab integro seclorum nascitur ordo’ (the great series of ages begins anew). The former is found in the Ænid, book 9, verse 625 (also in the Georgics, I. 40), and the latter in the fourth eclogue, fifth verse. Although the form ‘seclorum’ was adopted, the more approved form is ‘sæclorum;’ and the word is spelled with the ‘æ’ in all or nearly al the best modern editions of Latin authors.


Fourth design. Charles Thomson.



Arms: Azure, thirteen stripes Argent and Gules arranged chevronwise, six on the dexter and seven on the sinister.

Crest: Thirteen five-pointed stars within a halo and a bordure of clouds ppr.

Supporters: An American Eagle, in his dexter claw an olive branch and in his sinister a bundle of arrows ppr..

Motto: e pluribus unum on a ribbon in the bill of the eagle.


From: Am. Hist. Rev. VI.1977 frontisp. By courtesy of the National Archives Washington D.C.


“The next report is endorsed ‘Mr. Barton’s improvement on the Secretary’s device,’ and describes a device almost identical with the one finally agreed upon:

“’Device for an Armorial Atchievement for the United States of North America, blazonded agreeably to the Laws of Heraldry – proposed by Wm. Barton, A.M.

“’ARMS: Paleways of thirteen pieces, Argent and Gules; a Chief Azure; - The Escutcheon placed on the Breast of an American (the bald-headed) eagle, displayed, proper, holding in his Beak a Scroll, inscribed with this motto, viz., “E PLURIBUS UNUM” – and in his dexter Talon a Palm or an Olive Branch – in the other a bundle of 13 Arrows; all proper. For THE CREST: Over the Head of the Eagle, which appears above the Escutcheon, a Glory, Or; breaking through a cloud, proper,  and surrounding thirteen Stars forming a Constellation, Argent, on an Azure Field. In the Exergue of the Great Seal – “Jul IV. MDCCLXXVI” – In the margin of the same – “SIGIL. MAG REIPUB. CONFŒD. AMERIC.“

’REMARKS: ‘TheEscutcheon is composed of the Chief & Pale, the two most honourable ordinaries; the latter represent the several States; all joined in one solid, compact Entier, supporting a Chief, which unites the whole and represents Congress. – The Motto alludes to this Union. – The Colours or Tinctures of the Pales are those used in the Flag of the Unitesd States – White signifies Purity and Innocence; Red, Hardiness and Valour. The Chief denotes Congress – Blue is the Ground of the American uniform, and this colour signifies Vigilance, Perseverance and Justice. The meaning of the Crest is obvious, as is likewise that of the Olive Branch and Arrows.

“’The Escutcheon being placed on the Breast of the Eagle displayed os a very antient mode of bearing, and is truly imperial. The Eagle displayed is an Heraldical figure; and, being borne in the manner here described, supplies the place of supporters and Crest. The American States need no supporters but their own Virtue, and are kepts closely united by the Chief, which last likewise depends on that Union and the strength resulting from it, for its own support – The Inference is plain.

“’June 19th, 1782.                                                                                                                  W.B.


“The legend as proposed by Barton was left out finally.


The heraldic description of this achievement has not been changed until the present day, the design differing only in details over the years. It is the oldest  achievement of state  remained unchanged since its adoption in the world.


St. Paul's Chapel in New York City has a large oil painting of the national coat of arms, believed installed sometime in 1786. It was commissioned on 7 October 1785, not long after the Congress of the Confederation began meeting in nearby Federal Hall. The painting hangs over Washington's pew, across the room from a painting of the arms of New York over the Governor's pew. The painting has many similarities to Trenchard's version (or vice versa depending on which came first), including the random placement of stars and details of the eagle. The clouds are in a full circle, though, instead of an arc, and the rays extend beyond them in all directions. The shield has a gold chain border with a badge at the bottom. This is the earliest known full-color version of the seal design, and the artist is unknown.


Æ See illustration in the head of this article.

First Publication of Achievement

James Trenchard "Arms of the United States" The Columbian Magazine, (Philadelphia) September 1786, p. 33 Engraving in book Rare Book and Special Collections Division Library of Congress


Arms: Argent, six pales Gules

Crest: Thirteen five-pointed stars within a halo Or and a bordure of clouds ppr.

Supporter: An American Eagle, in his dexter claw an olive branch and in his sinister a bundle of 13 arrows ppr..

Motto: e pluribus unum on a ribbon in the bill of the eagle.


The Seal


“On June 20, 1782, the seal was finally decided upon. [1]


“On report of the Secretary, ‘to whom were referred the several reports on the device for a great seal, to take order:

“’ARMS. Palewayds of thirteen pieces, argent and gules; a chief, azure; the escutcheon on the breast of the American eagle displayed proper, holding in his dexter talon an olive branch, and in his sinister a bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper, and in his beak a scrolle, inscribed with this motto, “E PLURIBUS UNUM.

“’For the CREST. Over the head of the Eagle, which appears above the escutcheon, a glory, or, breaking through a clopud, proper, and surrounding thirteen stars, forming a constellation, argent, on an azure field.

’REVERSE. A Pyramid unfinished..

“’In the zenith, an eye in a triangle, surrounded with a glory proper. Over the eye these words, “Annuit cœptis.” On the base of the pyramidthe numerical letters MDCCLXXVI. And underneath the following motto, “ Novus Ordo Seclorum.”’

“Acconpanying the report and adopted by Congress, was the following:

’REMARKS AND EXPLANATION. The Escutcheon is composed of the chief and pale, the two most honourable ordinaries. The pieces, paly, represent the several Statesall joined in one solid compact entire, supporting a Chief, which unites the whole and represents Congress. The Motto alludes to this union. The pales in the Arms are kept closely united by the chief and the chief depends on that Union and the strength resultingfrom it for its support, to denote the Confederacy of the United Staes of America and the preservaiion of their Union through Congress. The colours of the pales are those used in the flag of the United States of America; White signifies purity and innocence, Red, hardiness and valour, and Blue , the colour of the chief signifies vigilance persevrance & justice. The Olive branch and arrows denote the power of peace and war which is exclusively vested in Congress. The Constellation denotes a new State taking its place and rank among other sovereign powers. The Escutcheon is born on the breast of an American Eagle without any other supporters, to denote that the United States ougth to rely on their own Virtue.

“’REVERSE: The pyramid signifies Streghth and Duration: The Eye over it and the motto allude to the many signal interpositions of providence in favour of the America cause. The date underneath is that of the Declaration of Independence and the words under it signify the beginning of the New American Æra, which commences from that date.

“”Passed June 20, 1782.’


The great seal has for device the achievement as adopted a day earlier. No legend was added at the circumference.

“The new seal was cut in brass soon after it had been decided upon, and it is found on a commission date September 16, 1782, granting full power and authority to General Washington to arrange with the British for exchange of prisoners of war. The commission is signed by Hohn Hanson, President of Congress, and soutersigned by Charles Thomson, Secretary, the seal being impressed upon the parchment over a white wafer fastened by red wax, in the upper left hand corner, instead of the lower left hand corner, as is now the custom.


In the course of history six (or possibly seven) dies of the seal of the United States have been cut and used officialy. The first, executed in brass by an unknown engraver, was employed as early as Sept. 16, 1782, and as late as April 24, 1841. This seal measures about 2¼ in. (57mm) in diameter. Of quaintly archaic style its distinguishing characteristics are a border resembling a chain of flowers, six-pointed stars and the arrows touching the border. Intended for  impression on wax, it had but one face, cut in intaglio. Almost invariably it was impressed on a corcular paper wafer, a thin layer of red wax being introduced between the wafer and the document  for the double purpose of attaching the wafer and bringing out the device in relief. To the instrument of ratification of the Treaty of Ghent (1814) and of other treaties of the decade following this seal was affixed pendently somewhat in the manner described below.

The seal of 1782.

By an unknown engraver.

Brass. Diameter about 2¼ in. Used from1782 until 1841


Washington Negotiating Authorization, Sept1782,

seal in the right hand uppur corner


The second die was cut in 1825. It was furnished, it seems by Seraphim Masi, jeweller and silversmith of Washington, to whom on May 4, 1825, the Department of State paid $ 406 “for Treaty Boxes & a great Seal.’ Abouth 4½ in. in diameter, it depicts the eagle realistically rather than heraldically. This die did not supersede the first, but was employed  concurrenly with it, being reserved for preparing pendant seals. Its manner of use was as follows: In the die was cast a red wax disk a quarter of an inch thick; the disk was prepared on melted wax to produce a cake nearly an inch thick, through the diamter of which ran the heavy tasselled cords that bound the engrossed pages of the document to their blue-velvet cover, and the wax for protection was closed in a metal case or skippet about five inches in diameter and an inch and a half thick. The skippets were usually of silver, some were of  “silver richly gilt”; a few were of gold; and the skippet top or cover bore a representation of this seal device cast in relief. While ordinarily the pendant seal was used only on instruments of ratification of treaties destined for exchange with foreign governments, it was affixed in some rare instances to full powers and ceremonial letters. The full power and the letter of credene carried by Commodore Matthew C. Perry on his mission to Japan in 1853-’54 both bore the pendant seal enclosed in skippets of solid gold; and the instrument of ratification of Perry’s treaty of March 31, 1854, was similarly sealed, with a gold skippet for which the Department of State paid $ 700.


The Old Treaty–Seal die and cast

Furnished by Seraphim Masi, 1825.

Diameter 411/16 in., thickness 1½ in., weight 6¼pounds. Steel


From 1857 the device of the skippet covers was cast in a die cut by Samuel Lewis, a Washington jeweller. This die was of the same size as the second die, described above, and its engraving was closely copied therefrom, distinguishing features being its greater depth and the stronger brow and shaggier feathering of the eagle. Some wax disks similar to those of the second seal were also cast in this die, and possibly a few were used in sealing documents, although no actual example of such use is known. Examination of United States instruments of ratification in certain foreign archives reveals that the seal of 1825 was employed at least as late as 1869. Pursuant to an order of Secretary of State Hamilton Fish of Feb. 4. 1871, use of the pendant seal was abandoned in favour of the wafer seal for all purposes.

Skippet Cover cast in the die cut by Samuel Lewis 1857

Example of a Treaty Seal cast in the die cut by Samuel Lewis.

Discovered in the National Archives by R. Paterson, 1948

The third die, which superseded the first, was used from April 1841 until November 1877. It was cut in cast steel by John V.N. Throop, engraver and copper-plate printer of Washington, at a cost of $ 60. Of approximately the same size as the seal of 1782, it differs therefrom in the style of its execution. The device has the appearance of being crowded toward the top; the stars, which for the first time are five-pointed, are minute; and the sheaf of arrows departs from the law in that it includes not thirteen, but six. During the first twenty years or more of its service, this die, like that of 1841, was impressed on a wafer over wax; thereafter glue or  paste replaced the wax for attaching the wafer to the document, and there are indications that a crude counter-die may have been provided. The die that superseded the third was used from November 1877 until April 1885. It was cut by Herman Baumgarten, seal engraver in Washingtom, at the cost of $ 105.50, including press, case and locks. Measuring about 2¼ in. in diameter, it was executed in close imitation of the seal of 1782; and like that seal it departs from the law in having but six arrows in the sinister talon. It is readily distinguished from the earlier seal by the larger size of its stars; and it was provided with a counterdie.



Die of the seal of 1841

Cut by John V.N. Throop. Cast steel.

Diameter about 2¼ in.

Six arrows instead of thirteen. Five –pointed stars

Seal of 1877

Cut by Herman Baumgarten

Diameter 2¼ in.



Criticism of this faulty design of the seal then in use led to an act of Congress of July 7. 1884, appropriating $ 1,000 to “enable the secretary of State to obtain dies of the obverse and reverse of the seal of the United States, and  the appliance necessary for making impressions from and for the preservation of the same”. Theodore F. Dwight, Chief of the Bureau of Rolls and Library of the Department of State, who supervised the designing of the new die, called into consultation prominent historians and authorities on heraldry and engraving. The design of the obverse was determined upon with great care. It was an enlargement of the seal of 1782 with modifications aimed at artistic improvement and stricter adherence to the original resolution creating the seal. Although the act of 1884 provided also for cutting the reverse of the seal, “spiritless, prosaic, heavy, and inappropriate,” has remained uncut and unused to this day. The obverse provided for by the act of 1884 was cut by Tiffany & Company, of New York, and served from April 1885 to Jan. 1904. Its diameter of three inches distinguishes it from all previous dies. Provided with a counter-die, it was usually impressed over a paper wafer pasted to the document, a practice authorized by act of Congress of May 31, 1854. About 1888 the present style of wafer, with invected edge, replaced the serrated form previously used.

After 17 years of use the die of 1885 was deemed to have become too much worn for further service. Accordingly an act of Congress of July 1, 1902, appropriated $ 1,250 to enable the Secretary of State to have the Great Seal of the United States reut.”After some discussion in the Department of State, it was decided that the new die should follow exactly the design of the seal of 1885. The appropriation, having lapsed before the die had been cut, was renewed by act of March 3, 1903, which specified that the seal shoukd be “recut from the original mode.”thus precluding any departure from the design of 1885. The die, engraved in hardened steek by Baily, Banks & Riddle pf Philadelphia, was first used on Jan. 27, 1904, and continues in current service. Measuring 3 inches in diameter, it may be distinguished from the seal of 1885 by its greater depth and by minutes differences in the rays of the “glory.” In the 1885 sealall the rays are solid lines; in the 1904 seal every other ray is a dotted line. Like the earlier seal, it is provided with a counter-die; and it is usually impressed over a paper wafer pasted to the document, although examples are to be found without the waper. The present dies and press are in the Recruiing and Seelectio Section of the Division of Personnel Supervision and Management of the Department of State, whe they are carefully kept under lock and key when not actuallu in use.

Present seal.

Obverse and reverse


Print of present seal


 Coloured version 1885


Legally, the seal has two designations, “the great seal” and “the seal of the United States,”both of which appear in acts of Congress and i a decision of the Supreme Court and both of which are in general use. In the resolution of Congress creating it, the seal is referred to as “the great seal,”and during the early years of the Department of State that designation served  to distinguish it from the “seal of the Department, then ermed the “seal of office”or “privy seal.”The act of 1789, however, declaring the seal of 1782 to be  “the seaof the United States,”mentions it in thise words; in documents to which it is affixed there is long-standing precedent for the same wording; and a publication of the Department of State of 1939 is so entitled.

The seal has a limited use which is strictly guarded by law. Wirg the expanding functions of the Government, the extent of its use has been curtailed from time to time by act of Congress or Executive order. For instance, where formerly the seal was affixed to all civil (not military or naval) commissions signed by the President, now persons appointed by the President to serve under Cabinet officers other than the Secretary of State are commissioned under the deals of the respetive departments. At present the great seal is affixed to presidential proclamations; instruments of ratification of treaties; full powers; exequaturs; presidential warrants for the extradition of fugitives from the justice of the United States; commissions of Cabinet officers; commissions of Ambassadors, Ministers and other Foreign Service officers; and commissions of all other civil officers appointed  by the President which are not by law required to issue under another seal. Also the seal is placed on the outside of the envelope containing a letter of credence or other ceremonial communication from the Prsident to the head of a foreign government. To commissions that issue under the great seal, the Secretary of State is required by law to cause the seal to be affixed after signature by the President; for “any other instrument or act”the Secretary must have a special warrant from the President directing him to do so. Except from some proclamations ant the commissions of some civil officers, the seal is now used anly in connection with internal affairs.

Apart from the seal, and as the emblem or coat of arms of the nation, the device of the obverse is emplyed officially in innumerable ways, and sometimes in more or less modified form, for purposes of decoration or identification. It appears on medals, on stationery, on publicatiobs, on currency, on flags, in paintings, and as architectural adornments; it forems part of the seal of the President; and it is displayed in colour over the entrance of Embassies, Legations, Consulates General, Consulates, Vice Consulates and Consular Agencies.

Richard S. Patterson [2]


President’s Seal


Presidential Seal, 1784


The seal of the President of the Continental Congress was a small oval cluster of thirteen stars, surrounded by clouds, and was almost identical in design with the crest of the seal of the United Staes (the Great Seal). It was used to attest the verity of the President’s  signature until the latter was adopted and superseded it. The design was afterwards changed, and it was made to conform closely to the Great Seal; the only difference being that in the President’s seal the eagle’s head is turned towards the sinister, and the stars are differently distributed. It is used simply in sealing envelopes containing communications from the President to Congress, the official seal for all Presidential acts being the seal of the United States, or, if the law permits it, of one of the Executive Departments. [3]

The President’s seals – Past and Present [4]


Various old versions of the Seal of the President of the United States, as printed in an 1885 issue of the Daily Graphic, a New York newspaper. The large seal on the left was made in 1850 by Edward Stabler, a Maryland farmer, postmaster, and engraver who made many governmental seals at the time. It was made according to the rough design submitted by President Fillmore, which can be seen at the bottom center. The associated article said that a smaller version was made by Stabler at the time, but since the seal in the upper right has only 27 stars and is labeled "The Old Seal", it would instead appear to be an earlier seal dating from about 1846. The seal in the bottom right was used by Thomas Mifflin, the President of the Continental Congress, in 1784. It is a reprint from an 1856 Harpers Magazine article by Benson J. Lossing.

Date 1885; seals from 1783, 1850, and (possibly) 1846. The small seal on top right with 27stars (1845-1846). The large seal on the left with 31 stars (1851-1858).


Presidential Seal, 1894

The eagle’s head turned to the sinister


Martigny presidential seal, 1903 [5]


Description 1903 Martiny US presidential seal.png A bronze plaque of the Seal of the President of the United States, made from a model by sculptor Philip Martiny in 1903, and installed in the floor of the north entranceway of the White House (directly beneath the lantern) during Theodore Roosevelt's administration. Also placed in the floor nearby was an inscription of "1792-1902" in an ellipse of 45 stars (the number of states at the time). During a 1948 renovation, President Truman had this plaque moved to above the door to the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House, where it remains today.


When in 1912 the number of states increased to 48 with the admission of Arizona and New Mexico, the seal of the President was changed by adding a ring of as many stars as the number of states of the Union.

At the same time the head of the eagle was turned to the dexter, and the halo and the clouds of the crest were restyled.


USA Presidential seal with 48 stars (= 1912-1959)


USA Presidential seal with 50 stars (1960-present)


Today the Presidential seal is on the pulpit of the President when speaking in public and also on his air plane




Meeting in Philadelphia in the 1790s, members of the early Senate so admired the visually appealing Great Seal that they had it reproduced on a carpet woven for their chamber.  They also selected a similar design for the first official Senate seal.


US Senate Seal 1798-1804


The earliest surviving impression from the first Senate seal appears on a 1798 impeachment trial summons.  It displays the 1782 american eagle, with a shield at its breast, its talons clutching arrows and an olive branch.  Rays of light burst from clouds above the eagle, symbolizing the emergence of the new nation.  Legend: SENATE OF THE UNTED STATES


1831 US Senate Seal


In 1830, the Senate commissioned a replacement seal.  Following the then-popular neoclassical style, that device featured three goddesses symbolizing Justice, Liberty, and Strength.  A chain of twenty-four links, representing the existing number of states, formed an encircling border.  That second seal appears among the official documents of President Andrew Johnson’s 1868 impeachment trial.


The nation’s 1876 centennial renewed interest in such national symbols and prompted a redesign of the Great Seal.  On March 31, 1885, the Senate took notice of that redesign and ordered an updating of its own.  Heavily used during an 1876 impeachment trial, the old seal had been left in poor condition in a Capitol basement.  As the Senate approached its one-hundredth anniversary, it paid a Philadelphia engraver $35 to design a third version featuring a liberty cap above a central shield, emblazoned with thirteen stars and an equal number of vertical stripes.


Black&white version 1886

Coloured version as on flag, 1980-ties


Arms: [Argent] six pales [Gules] and a chief [Azure] 13 five-pointed stars [Argent]

Crest:  a cap of Liberty Gules, its rim [Azure] inscribed LIBERTY

Garland: Branches of Olive and Oak [ppr]

Motto: E PLURIBUS UNUM in black lettering on a white ribbon per fess over the shield.

Legend: On a ring [Azure] UNITED STATES SENATE [in white lettering] and two fasces in saltire [ppr] in base


Today, that seal - first used in 1886 - remains in the custody of the Secretary of the Senate. Measuring one-and-a-half inches in diameter, it is used on impeachment and treaty documents, and on presentation copies of Senate resolutions recognizing appointments, commendations, and notable achievements.


Because the official Senate seal is used only to authenticate official Senate documents, and not normally as a general visual symbol, the Secretary of the Senate has also authorized an alternative, non-official Senate seal. This alternative seal, which features an eagle clutching arrows and an olive branch in its talons, surrounded by the words "United States Senate," is commonly used by Senate offices and is often displayed on items sold in the Senate gift shop. Even more commonly seen perhaps is a version of the Great Seal of the United States (which also depicts an eagle clutching arrows and an olive branch in its claws) surrounded by a similar inscription These often appear on Senate web pages, on podiums when senators speak, and other situations. The House of Representatives also uses similar designs for their unofficial seals, and since the United States Congress as a whole does not have an official seal, similar designs are often used with a Congress inscription


National Security Agency



The National Security Agency was created in November 1952 and has provided timely information to U.S. decision makers and military leaders for more than 50 years. However, even before President Truman signed the memorandum establishing the Agency, pioneer cryptologists laid the groundwork for an organization that would play a critical role in the outcome of all major conflicts. Cryptologist legends such as William and Elizebeth Friedman, Frank Rowlett, Agnes Meyer Driscoll and Herbert O. Yardley are remembered for their brilliant contributions but thousands of other men and women have quietly served their country altering the course of this nation’s history and ensuring a free and safe America. The history of cryptology is their story.

The NSA/CSS boasts a rich heritage and the people who have served their country in any cryptologic capacity understand a legacy unknown to most Americans. From pre-WWI efforts to the most recent conflicts, this nation’s cryptologists have been there quietly protecting and exploiting signals intelligence.

Their efforts and the use of radio intercept, radio direction finding, and processing capabilities gave the United States and its Allies a unique advantage in WWI. The lessons learned here and advances in technology played a critical role in the cryptologic successes in WWII. It was finally realized that cryptanalysts needed to be coordinated under one agency so the Armed Forces Security Agency was formed in 1949. The mission of this newly created agency was to conduct communications intelligence and communications security activities within the National Military Establishment.

However, with its restrictive organizational structure and a lack of a central agency for cryptologic efforts, AFSA could not achieve its mission. It had merely become the military branch for cryptology. The agency was therefore redesigned and all cryptologic activities both military and nonmilitary were brought together to form the National Security Agency.

Since its inception, the Agency has taken responsibility for securing the nation’s communications while exploiting foreign signals intelligence. Although inherently a secret business, a public museum devoted to the history of cryptologists and their work opened to the public in December 1993. Memorabilia ranging from the German Enigma to the recently declassified Cray computer decorate the museum hallways. The National Cryptologic Museum attempts to pull back the veil of secrecy and gives visitors an insight into the history of making and breaking codes. Visitors can get a feel for the legacy and rich heritage that is the cornerstone of the National Security Agency.


The National Security Agency Insignia

In 1965, LTG Marshall S. Carter, USA, Director NSA, directed a device be designed to represent the National Security Agency. The approved insignia is shown here and contains much symbolism.

The white semicircle border displays the words National Security Agency around the top and United States of America around the bottom separated on either side by a five pointed silver star. The shape of the insignia, a circle, represents perpetuity of its continuance, the symbol of eternity.

In a blue field, an American eagle, with wings inverted, is the centerpiece of the device. In heraldry, the eagle is a symbol of courage, supreme power and authority. Use of the eagle in the NSA insignia symbolizes the national scope of the mission of the Agency. The eagle faces its right, the direction of peace (facing left would symbolize war).

The dexter and sinister talons of the bird clutch a silver key. The key in the eagle’s talons, representing the key to security, evolved from the emblem of St. Peter the Apostle and his power to loose and to bind. It also symbolizes the mission to protect and gain access to secrets.

The breast of the eagle boasts a chief blue escutcheon, supported by paleways of thirteen pieces of red and white. The Escutcheon, or Shield, placed on the breast of the eagle is a very ancient mode of bearing. A description of the Escutcheon, taken from that of the Great Seal of the United States, explains that “the escutcheon is composed of the chief and pale, the two most honorable ordinaries (common figures). The pieces, paly, represent the several states all joined in one solid compact entire, supporting a chief, which unites the whole and represents Congress.”

In 1996, NSA Director Lt Gen Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, requested an emblem be created which represented both the National Security Agency and Central Security Service. Although NSA had its own emblem, one had not yet been made for CSS. As a result, the emblem was designed and adopted in that year.

The Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002, enacted 28 December 2001, amended the National Security Act of 1947 and codified the USCG as part of the Intelligence Community. The new CSS seal was created in September 2002 to reflect the transformations taking place within the Intelligence Community and NSA/CSS, particularly the admission of the United States Coast Guard into the United States Cryptologic System.

The new seal now displays all five of the Service Cryptologic Elements, which are comprised of the United States Naval Security Group, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Army's Intelligence Security Command, the United States Air Forces' Air Intelligence Agency, and the USCG. Each are equally balanced around a five point star on which is centered the symbol of NSA/CSS, who provides the funding, direction, and guidance to all of America's SIGINT activities.

The House of Representatives recognized the USCG's national security objectives in the areas of maritime interception operations, port operations security and defense, military environmental response operations, and peacetime military engagement. The USCG is the only organization responsible for law enforcement, intelligence, and military activities simultaneously. Section 10 of the Authorization added the USCG as an element of the Intelligence Community and placed this organizational element on a par with those of other armed services and agencies.


Central Intelligence Agency


The Central Intelligence Agency was created on July 26, 1947, when Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act into law. A major impetus for the creation of the CIA was the unforeseen attack on Pearl Harbor. In addition, towards the end of World War II the U.S. government felt the need for a group to coordinate intelligence efforts.

The CIA is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet.


CIA seal, 17.02.1950

Section 2 of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 provided for a seal of office for CIA.

The design of the seal was approved and set forth on 17 February 1950 in President Harry Truman's Executive Order 10111.

In this Order, the CIA seal is described in heraldic terms as follows:


SHIELD: Argent, a compass rose of sixteen points gules.

CREST: On a wreath argent and gules an American bald eagle's head erased proper.

Below the shield on a gold color scroll the inscription "United States of America" in red letters and encircling the shield and crest at the top the inscription "Central Intelligence Agency" in white letters.

All on a circular blue background with a narrow gold edge.


Interpretation of the CIA Seal:

  • The shield is the standard symbol of defense.
  • The radiating spokes of the compass rose depict the convergence of intelligence data from all areas of the world to a central point.
  • The American Eagle is the national bird and is asymbol of strength and alertness.


Federal Bureau of Investigation


Over the years, the FBI seal has undergone several changes. In its early years, the Bureau used the Department of Justice seal.

The Act of 24 September 1789 provided for an Attorney General of the United States, and 2 June 1870 the Department of Justice was created with the Attorney-Genral as its head. Section 353 of the Revised Statutes (5 March 1872) declares: The seal heretofore provided for the office of the Attorney-General shall be, with such changed as the Presiden shall approve, the seal of the Department of Justice.”

The seal now in use , therefore , is substantially the same as the one adopted by the Attorney-Gneral before the Department was formed. No device was ever prescribed by law.  It consists of the arms of the Union, augmented with 13 stars in the chief, resting thereupon the American eagle



The first official FBI seal was adopted in 1935, modifying the Department of Justice logo by adding “Federal Bureau of Investigation” and “Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity” to the outer band. In 1940, Special Agent Leo Gauthier—a draftsman, artist, and illustrator—presented a new design based on an earlier Bureau flag that he had created. This design was readily accepted and has been the Bureau’s symbol ever since. 

Each symbol and color in the FBI seal has special significance.

The  blue field of the seal and the scales on the shield represent justice.

The endless circle of 13 stars denotes unity of purpose as exemplified by the original 13 states.

The laurel leaf has, since early civilization, symbolized academic honors, distinction, and fame.

There are 46 leaves in the two branches, since there were 46 states in the Union when the FBI was founded in 1908.

The significance of the red and white pales lies in their colors. Red traditionally stands for courage, valor, strength, while white conveys cleanliness, light, truth, and peace. As in the American flag, the red bars exceed the white by one.

The motto, “Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity,” succinctly describes the motivating force behind the men and women of the FBI

The peaked bevelled edge which circumscribes the seal symbolizes the severe challenges confronting the FBI and the ruggedness of the organization.

The gold color in the seal conveys its overall value.


Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity—The FBI Motto

The origins of the FBI’s motto may be traced to a brief comment by Inspector W. H. Drane Lester, the editor of the employee magazine, The Investigator, in September 1935:

“F B I”

At last we have a name that lends itself to dignified abbreviation the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which quite naturally becomes “F B I.” In the past our nicknames, which the public are so prone to give us, have been many and varied. “Justice Agents”, “D. J. Men”, “Government Men” are but a few of them, with the Bureau itself incorrectly referred to as “Crime Bureau”, “Identification Bureau” and “Crime Prevention Bureau.” The latest appellation, and perhaps the one which has become most widespread, is “G-Men’, an abbreviation itself for “Government Men.”


Central Security Service



The Central Security Service Insignia

In 1996, NSA Director Lt Gen Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, requested an emblem be created which represented both the National Security Agency and Central Security Service. Although NSA had its own emblem, one had not yet been made for CSS. As a result, the emblem was designed and adopted in that year.

The Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002, enacted 28 December 2001, amended the National Security Act of 1947 and codified the USCG as part of the Intelligence Community. The new CSS seal was created in September 2002 to reflect the transformations taking place within the Intelligence Community and NSA/CSS, particularly the admission of the United States Coast Guard into the United States Cryptologic System.

The new seal now displays all five of the Service Cryptologic Elements, which are comprised of the United States Naval Security Group, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Army's Intelligence Security Command, the United States Air Forces' Air Intelligence Agency, and the USCG. Each are equally balanced around a five point star on which is centered the symbol of NSA/CSS, who provides the funding, direction, and guidance to all of America's SIGINT activities.

The House of Representatives recognized the USCG's national security objectives in the areas of maritime interception operations, port operations security and defense, military environmental response operations, and peacetime military engagement. The USCG is the only organization responsible for law enforcement, intelligence, and military activities simultaneously. Section 10 of the Authorization added the USCG as an element of the Intelligence Community and placed this organizational element on a par with those of other armed services and agencies.


Armed Forces



Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the Commander in Chief of the armed forces. To coordinate military action with diplomatic action, the President has an advisory National Security Council.

Under the President is the United States Secretary of Defense, a Cabinet Secretary responsible for the Department of Defense.

Both the President and Secretary are advised by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


During the peacetime that followed World War II, the military applied lessons learned from the war, adopting a new system of organization under a single secretary of defense. The system established the U.S. Air Force, the Joint Chiefs of Staff and new commands made up of components from more than one military service. These new multi-service or unified commands had broad, continuing missions and were intended to ensure that forces from the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps would all work together.

The unified commands were either responsible for a geographical area (like Europe or the Pacific) or a specific function, such as transportation.


In accordance with the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 (which fundamentally changed the organization of the Department) the 4 service chiefs together with the chairman and the vice chairman form the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Joint Chiefs serve only in an advisory and administrative capacity, with operational control flowing from the President and Secretary of Defense directly to the Commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands (see Goldwater-Nichols Act). Each service is responsible for providing military units to the commanders of the various Unified Commands.

National Command organizational chart


Structure of the United States National Security Council (2005)




President of the United States

Regular Attendees

Vice President

Secretary of State

Secretary of the Treasury

Secretary of Defense

Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs

Military Advisor

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Intelligence Advisor

irector of National Intelligence - Note: prior to 21.04.2005  this Dposition was filled by the Director of Central Intelligence

Additional Participants

Chief of Staff to the President

Counsel to the President

Assistant to the President for Economic Policy


President of the United States


Seal of the President of the United States,

Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.


The National Security Council was created in 1947  by the National Security Act. The context was a bureaucratic concurrence between the Navy and Field Army. President Truman had made a prudent choice because he managed to make both of them happy.


The National Security Council (NSC) of the United States  is the principal forum used by the President of the United States  for considering national security and foreign policy  matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception under President Harry Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. The United States NSC has counterparts in many other countries' National Security Councils.


The decision process inside the structure has become less and less formal, but influence of the Council has become stronger and stronger.


Department of defense

Secretary of defense


Seal of the Department of Defense.

Presentl coloured version


Seal: [On a light blue disc] The American Eagle [proper], on his breast an escutcheon paly of thirteen Argent and Gules and a chief Azure, in his claws thee arrows and above his head a halo of thirteen five-pointed stars [Or]. In base a garland of olive and laurel branches [proper].

Legend: DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE  UNITED STATES OF AMERICA [in white lettering on a dark blue border].

Seal of the Department of Defense.

Original black and white version.


Office of the Secretary of Defense


Identification Badge

OSD id-badge


I Description. a. Regular Size: The badge, 2 inches in diameter, consists of an eagle with wings displayed horizontally grasping three crossed arrows all gold bearing on its breast a shield paleways of thirteen pieces argent and gules a chief azure, a gold annulet passing behind the wing tips bearing thirteen gold stars above the eagle and a wreath of laurel and olive in green enamel below the eagle, the whole superimposed on a silver sunburst of 33 rays.

        b. The miniature badge is 1 1/2 inches in diameter and is of the same design as the regular size badge except the shield has 9 stripes (5 white and 4 red).

        c. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) lapel button is 37/64 inch in diameter and the shield has five stripes (3 white and 2 red).


II Symbolism. The elements on the OSD badge are taken from the Department of Defense seal.


III Award eligibility. Criteria for award of the OSD Identification Badge is established by DOD Directive 1348.13.


IVDate approved. The badge was originally approved as the National Military Establishment Identification Badge by the Secretary of Defense per memorandum dated 25 March 1949. It was redesignated the Department of Defense Identification Badge on 28 August 1950. The badge was reestablished and redesignated the Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge by DOD Directive 1348.13 dated 20 December 1962 and authorized for service of not less than one year subsequent to 13 January 1961.


Joint Chiefs of Staff             


The 4 service chiefs together with the chairman and the vice chairman form the joint chiefs of staff.


Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Chief of Staff of the United States Army

Chief of Naval Operations

Commandant of the Marine Corps

Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force




Identification badge


I. Description. a. Regular Size: Within an oval silver metal wreath of laurel, 2¼ inches in height and 2 inches in width overall, the shield of the United States (the chief in blue enamel and the 13 stripes alternating white and red enamel) superimposed on four gold metal unsheathed swords, two in pale and two in saltire with points to chief, the points and pommels resting on the wreath, the blades and grips entwined with a gold metal continuous scroll surrounding the shield with the word JOINT at the top and the words CHIEFS OF STAFF at the bottom, all in blue enamel letters.

        b. Miniature Size: The miniature badge is 1½ inches in height and 13/8  inches in width. The design is the same as the regular badge except the shield on the miniature has 9 stripes.

        c. Lapel Button: The lapel button is 9/16 inch in height and ½ inch in width and is of the same design as the badges except the shield has 5 stripes.

II. Symbolism. Laurel is symbolic of achievement, courage, and victory. The four unsheathed swords refer to the armed might of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps and their combined constant vigilance and readiness in the defense of the United States.

iii. award eligibility. Criteria for the award of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Identification Badge are established by JCS Memorandum of Policy (MOP) 142.

iv. date approved. Proposed designs were prepared by The Institute of Heraldry and submitted to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on 21 February 1963. On 2 April 1963, the JCS approved a MOP, which established the JCS Identification Badge.


Unified Combatant Commands


There are 9 Unified Combatant Commands- 5 geographic and 4 functional.


The Five Geographic Commands



Depicted below is a world map from the Unified Command Plan showing the geographic responsibilities of the combatant commanders




Home Base

Area of Responsibility

U.S. Northern Command



Peterson Air Force Base



North American homeland defense and coordinating homeland security with civilian forces.

U.S. Central Command


Macdill Air Force Base,


The Horn of Africa through the Persian Gulf  region, into Central Asia.

U.S. European Command



SHAPE (Supreme

Headquarters Allied Powers Europe), Belgium

Europe and African and Middle Eastern nations not covered by CENTCOM.


U.S. Pacific Command


Honolulu, Hawaii


The Asia-Pacific region including Hawaii.

U.S. Southern Command


Miami, Florida


South, Central America and the surrounding waters


U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM)





U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM)


The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command unit of the U.S. armed forces, established in 1983 under the operational control of the U.S. Secretary of Defense. It was originally conceived of as the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force (RDJTF).

Its area of responsibility includes countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia, most notably Afghanistan and Iraq. CENTCOM has been the main American presence in many military operations, including the Gulf War, the United States war in Afghanistan, and the Iraq War. Forces from CENTCOM currently are deployed primarily in Iraq and Afghanistan in combat roles and have bases in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Pakistan, and central Asia in support roles. CENTCOM forces have also been deployed in Jordan, and Saudi Arabia in the past, although no substantial forces are based in those countries as of 2009.

Of the six American regional unified commands, CENTCOM is one of three regional unified commands whose headquarters are not within its area of operations. CENTCOM's main headquarters is located at MacDill Air Force Base, in Tampa, Florida, although a forward headquarters was established in 2002 at Camp As Sayliyah in Doha, Qatar, which transitioned to a new forward headquarters at Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar in 2009 to serve American strategic interests of the Iraq region.


U.S. European Command (EUCOM)





U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM)




U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM)





The Four Functional Commands

U.S. Special Operations

 Command (SOCOM)

Macdill Air Force

 Base,  Florida.

Provides special operations for the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps.

U.S. Joint Forces Command  (JFCOM)

Norfolk, Virginia


Supports other commands as a joint force provider.

U.S. Strategic Command


Offut Air Force Base,


Covers the strategic deterrent force and coordinates the use of space assets.

U.S. Transportation Command (TRANSCOM)

Scott Air Force Base,


Covers global mobility of all military assets for all regional commands.








Joint Forces Command's origins trace back to 1947


During the peacetime that followed World War II, the military applied lessons learned from the war, adopting a new system of organization under a single secretary of defense. The system established the U.S. Air Force, the Joint Chiefs of Staff and new commands made up of components from more than one military service. These new multi-service or unified commands had broad, continuing missions and were intended to ensure that forces from the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps would all work together.

The unified commands were either responsible for a geographical area (like Europe or the Pacific) or a specific function, such as transportation. Atlantic Command (now U.S. Joint Forces Command) was created as the unified command with responsibility for the Atlantic Ocean geographical region.

Due to the maritime nature of its missions, Atlantic Command was integrated with the Navy's existing Atlantic Fleet and was primarily staffed by Navy and Marine Corps personnel. Its initial mission was to guard sea lanes between Europe and the U.S. East Coast. As the Cold War heated up during the second half of the century, Atlantic Command's mission proved crucial protecting sea lanes in the Atlantic.

USJFCOM was formed in 1999 when the old United States Atlantic Command was renamed and given a new mission: leading the transformation of the U.S. military through experimentation and education.







Military Departments





The Army’s mission is to fight and win our Nation’s wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders. We do this by:

• Executing Title 10 and Title 32 United States Code directives, to include organizing, equipping, and training forces for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat operations on land.

• Accomplishing missions assigned by the President, Secretary of Defense and combatant commanders, and Transforming for the future.



The Army, as one of the three military departments (Army, Navy and Air Force) reporting to the Department of Defense, is composed of two distinct and equally important components: the active component and the reserve components. The reserve components are the United States Army Reserve and the Army National Guard.

Regardless of component, The Army conducts both operational and institutional missions. The operational Army consists of numbered armies, corps, divisions, brigades, and battalions that conduct full spectrum operations around the world. (Operational Unit Diagram and descriptions). The institutional Army supports the operational Army. Institutional organizations provide the infrastructure necessary to raise, train, equip, deploy, and ensure the readiness of all Army forces. The training base provides military skills and professional education to every Soldier—as well as members of sister services and allied forces. It also allows The Army to expand rapidly in time of war. The industrial base provides world-class equipment and logistics for The Army. Army installations provide the power-projection platforms required to deploy land forces promptly to support combatant commanders. Once those forces are deployed, the institutional Army provides the logistics needed to support them. Without the institutional Army, the operational Army cannot function. Without the operational Army, the institutional Army has no purpose.




army_seal.jpg (42570 bytes)

War Office seal


Background: The traditional seal used during and since the Revolution was redesignated as the Seal of the Department of the Army by the National Security Act of 1947. The Department of the Army seal is authorized by Section 3011, Title 10, United States Code. The date "MDCCLXXVIII" and the designation "War Office" are indicative of the origin of the seal. The date (1778) refers to the year of its adoption. The term "War Office" used during the Revolution, and for many years afterward, was associated with the Headquarters of the Army.


Description: In the center is a Roman cuirass below a vertical unsheathed sword, point up, the pommel resting on the neck opening of the cuirass and a Phrygian cap supported on the sword point, all between on the right an esponton and on the left a musket with fixed bayonet crossed in saltire behind the cuirass and passing under the sword guard. To the right of the cuirass and esponton is a flag of unidentified designs with cords and tassels, on a flagstaff with spearhead, above a cannon barrel, the muzzle end slanting upward behind the cuirass, in front of the drum, with two drumsticks and the fly end of the flag draped over the drumhead; below, but partly in front of the cannon barrel, is a pile of three cannon balls. To the left of

the cuirass and musket is a national color of the Revolutionary War period, with cords and tassels, on a flagstaff with spearhead, similarly arranged above a mortar on a carriage, the mortar facing

inward and in front of the lower portion of the color and obscuring the lower part of it; below the mortar are two bomb shells placed side by side. Centered above the Phrygian cap is a rattlesnake holding in its mouth a scroll inscribed "This We’ll Defend." Centered below the cuirass are the Roman numerals "MDCCLXXVIII."


Symbolism: The central element, the Roman cuirass, is a symbol of strength and defense. The sword, esponton (a type of half-pike formerly used by subordinate officers), musket, bayonet, cannon, cannon balls, mortar, and mortar bombs are representative of Army implements. The drum and drumsticks are symbols of public notification of the Army’s purpose and intent to serve the Nation and its people. The Phrygian cap (often called the Cap of Liberty) supported on the point of an unsheathed sword and the motto "This We’ll Defend" on a scroll held by the rattlesnake is a symbol depicted on some American colonial flags and signifies the Army’s constant readiness to defend and preserve the United States.


Current Usage: This "War Office" seal continues to be used to this day when legal certification is necessary to authenticate as "official" documents and records of the Department of the Army.

Information Provided by The Institute of Heraldry - March 1998


The traditional War Office seal used since the Revolution was designated as the Department of the Army Seal by the National Security Act of 1947. The date “MDCCLXXVIII” and the designation “War  Office” are from the seal. The date (1778) refers to the year of its adoption. The term “Board of War and Ordnance, United States of America” was used during the Revolution, later shortened to “United States of America, War Office” and was always associated  with the Headquarters of the Army since the Navy had its own seal.

The  center of the seal is a Roman cuirass below a vertical unsheathed sword, point up, with the pommel resting on the neck opening of the cuirass and a Phrygian cap (the emblem of freedom during that period) supported on the sword point. The entire central device is a group of military trophies. Over this is a serpent holding in its mouth a scroll inscribed “This We’ll Defend”. Beneath the trophies are the Roman numerals for 1778.



Department of the Army Seal


Background: Prior to the establishment of the Department of the Army Emblem, there was no official display item to identify the Army. The Army seal had traditionally been used to authenticate documents only and was not authorized for display. In recognizing the need to provide a display item, The Secretary of the Army approved the emblem design as the official emblem to represent the Army on 29 January 1974.


Description: The Army emblem is derived from the Army seal and differs from the seal in several respects:

a. The emblem is displayed in color while the seal is not.

b. The emblem includes the inscription "Department of the Army" instead of the seal inscription "War Office".

c. On the emblem, the American flag is on its own right (observers left) to reflect the current custom for display of flags. The Army flag pattern has been added to the other flag.

d. The Roman numerals "MDCCLXXVIII" which indicate the date the Army seal was adopted, were replaced with the date "1775" to reflect the date the Army was established.


Symbolism: The symbolism for the elements of the Army emblem is the same as for the Army seal with the above deviations and additions: The colors of the design elements are those traditionally associated with the ideals of the United States and of the Army. The flags are in proper colors. Blue is symbolic of loyalty, vigilance, perseverance, and truth. Red denotes courage, zeal, and fortitude. White alludes to deeds worthy of remembrance. Black is indicative of determination and constancy. Gold represents achievement, dignity, and honor.


Current Usage: The reproduction of the Army emblem is authorized in publications and other printed matter of an official or quasi-official nature in Army approved films and in official Army motion pictures or television programs. The design may not be modified in any manner. It may be reproduced in its proper colors, through the use of a one-color line process, or as a line drawing. The use of the Army emblem for any other purposes, including its incorporation in other items for commercial sale, will be only as authorized by The Institute of Heraldry.

Information Provided by The Institute of Heraldry - March 1998


Army Staff Identification Badge


I. Description: The Coat of Arms of the United States in gold with the stripes of the shield to be enameled white and red and chief of the shield and the sky of the glory to be enameled blue, superimposed on a five-pointed black enameled star; in each reentrant angle of the star are three green enameled laurel leaves.  The star is 3 inches in diameter for the Chief of Staff and former Chiefs of Staff and a 2 inches in diameter badge is authorized for all other personnel awarded the badge.


II. Symbolism: The badge is based on the General Staff insignia with a black star in lieu of the Silver Star. The addition of the laurel leaves indicate achievement.


III.Award Eligibility: The badge is awarded by principal officials of Headquarters, Department of the Army to military personnel serving on their staff and within their subordinate agencies.  Eligibility criteria for wear and permanent issue are contained in Department of the Army Memorandum 672-1.  Permanent issue must be authorized by principal officials with the certificate of authorization constituting authority for wearing the badge as a permanent part of the uniform.


IV.Date approved: The badge was first proposed by General MacArthur, while Chief of Staff, in a conversation with Brigadier General Andrew Moses, then Assistant Chief of Staff, G1, War Department General Staff, on 28 December 1931. Subsequently, the badge was designed by the Office of the Quartermaster General and approved by the Chief of Staff, General MacArthur, on 28 July 1933. It was announced on 23 August 1933 in War Department Circular No. 45 and award was made retroactive to 4 June 1920. Sergeants Major were authorized to be awarded the badge effective 30 September 1978 and the effective date for Warrant Officers was 22 August 1979.The lapel button for civilian personnel in the grade of GS-11 and higher was authorized effective 1 July 1982. The Army Chief of Staff, General Wickham, also approved a change in the name of the badge from Army General Staff Identification Badge to Army Staff Identification Badge. On 4 May 2004, the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-1, approved changes to the eligibility requirements.


V.Subdued Badge: The Army Staff Identification Badge is not authorized to be worn or manufactured in a subdued version.


VI. Miniature Badges: A miniature badge with 7 stripes in the chief instead of 13 stripes and 1 ½ inches in diameter was authorized on 23 June 1989.


Major Commands


US army Europe



US army Pacific


The USARPAC Insignia


The insignia of the U.S. Army, Pacific was originally designed and approved for U.S. Army forces Pacific Ocean Areas on February 23, 1945.

The patch contains a red arrow and white stars on a blue field.

The red arrow of war denotes the valor and self-sufficiency of the forces of the command.

The blue field represents the vast expanse of the command area.

The white stars portray the North Star, Big Dipper and the Southern Cross, which locate the command headquarters.

The stars of the insignia also recall a key date in the history of the U.S. Army and the U.S. Armed Forces in the Pacific.  The total of 12 stars represents the month of December, the seven stars of the Big Dipper, the 7th day, and the four stars of the Southern Cross plus the North Star, the year '41: 12-7-41 - December 7, 1941, the date of the United States' entry into World War II.


Eight U.S. Army Korea



U.S. army Forces command



U.S. army special Forces command



U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC),


Distinctive Unit Insignia




A gold color metal and enamel device 1 3/16 inches (3.02 cm) in height consisting of a black scroll doubled and inscribed "SECURE THE HIGH GROUND" in gold issuing a light blue demi-globe gridlined gold below and arched blue background bearing an arc of gold stars, overall an American eagle in proper colors in flight.



The eagle above the globe symbolizes the unit's mission and reflects the motto. The arc of stars simulates a gateway and suggests control of space as the determining factor in total preparedness and military defense.



The distinctive unit insignia was originally authorized for U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command on 16 July 1996 while the organization was a Field Operating Agency (FOA) of the Chief of Staff. It was redesignated for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command effective 1 October 1997 as a result of a change of name and establishment of the unit as a Major Army Command.


Shoulder Sleeve Insignia



On a blue shield with a 1/8 inch (.32 cm) red border, 3 1/4 inches (8.26 cm) in height and 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) in width overall, two arced red flashes fimbriated yellow point to point between an eagle's head in proper colors and a white demi-sphere gridlined blue issuing from base.



Red, white, and blue are our National colors. The eagle, our National symbol, denotes freedom and constant vigilance. The gridlined sphere symbolizes the worldwide scope of the command's mission, while the flashes represent all-encompassing strike capability and quick response.



The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally authorized for U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command on 21 March 1996 while the organization was a Field Operating Agency (FOA) of the Chief of Staff. It was redesignated for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command effective 1 October 1997 as a result of a change of name and establishing the unit a Major Army Command. (TIOH Drawing Number A-1-826)


US Army Military Police Corps



Arms: Vert, a fasces per pale charged with a balance, a sword and a key in saltire, Or, the rods of the faces brown.

Crest: On a wreath of the colors two pistols in saltire Or

Supporter: The American Eagle

Motto: ASSIST PROTECT DEFEND in lettering Vert on a ribbon Or.



On the Regimental Flag on a green cloth.


Distinctive Unit Insignia


Arms: Vert, a fasces per pale charged with a balance, a sword and a key in saltire, Or, the rods of the faces brown.

Crest: Pistols in saltire Or

Motto: ASSIST PROTECT DEFEND in lettering Vert on a ribbon Or.


Branch Insignia and -Plaque



Breast Badge


US Army Criminal Investigation Division Badge


Provost Marshal General






First Navy Board seal with the signature of the secretary


The first “Navy” seal was adopted by the Continental Congress on 4 May 1780.

Board of Admiralty Seal

Board of Admiralty Seal

Board of Admiralty Seal – is based on information found in Rough Journals of the Continental Congress. This representation was prepared at the request of the Secretary of the Navy for President John F. Kennedy. The seal is on a circular background, with a three masted square rigged ship underway, supported by a stylized sea scroll, over an inclined anchor.  Below the anchor is a scroll with the Latin words SUSTENTANS ET SUSTENTATUM, which means  “sustaining and having sustained,” or “upholding and having upheld.” The inscription around the edge is USA SIGIL. NAVAL at the top and thirteen stars around the bottom.


Navy Seal


Official Seal of the United States Navy

Official Seal of the United States Navy – is officially described as: “Consists of the shield of the United States in front of an American bald eagle, wings spread, perched upon a Luce-type anchor, which is displayed on a light background. The emblem is encircled with a navy blue band edged in a gold rope rim and inscribed UNITED STATES at the top and NAVY at the bottom, separated on each side by a mullet and within a rim in the form of a rope, mullet and edges of annulet all gold.”


Marine Corps






Air Force







In the late 1990s, Air Force senior leadership recognized the need to design an official symbol and develop a centralized theme to encourage young people to join, encourage airmen to stay and to build understanding, appreciation and support for America's Air Force. They directed a commercial company, specializing in corporate branding, to research and develop a unique symbol. Company representatives traveled throughout the Air Force and to major U.S. cities to conduct research and become intimately familiar with the Air Force and its culture, environment and heritage.

The new Air Force symbol is based on the familiar WW II "Hap" Arnold wings and represents the service's proud heritage. The symbol’s modern design represents the Air Force’s present and future leading edge capabilities defending our nation.



Research, surveys and focus groups commissioned


Symbol designed

May 2000

Trademark registration filed


Symbol tested throughout Air Force


Survey of internal Air Force audience revealed 90% identify the new symbol as the official Air Force symbol

Sept 2003

Trademark registration date Serial #76040432 and Registration #2767190

May 2004

USAF Chief of Staff designates Symbol as the Official Symbol of the Air Force




Shield: Per fess nebuly abased Azure and Argent, in chief a thunderbolt Or inflamed proper.

Crest: On a wreath Argent and Azure an American bald eagle wings displayed and partially elevated proper in front of a cloud Argent.

Seal: On a blue disk and encircling the shield and crest, an arc of thirteen stars and below the shield the inscription "MCMXLVII". On a band encircling the whole, the inscriptions "DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE" and "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA".


Symbolism: Ultramarine blue and yellow are the colors of the Air Force. The nebuly division of the shield represents clouds. The thunderbolt signifies the striking power through the use of aerospace. The eagle symbolizes the United States and its airpower. The white clouds behind the eagle reflect the start of a new sky. The thirteen stars represent the original thirteen colonies. The Roman Numeral MXMXLVII (1947) is the year the Air Force was established as a separate Service. The design was approved by the President of the United States on November 1, 1947.






Senior Pilot

Command Pilot


U.S. Coast Guard




Ancient Emblem






The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states – South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas – in the Lower South region whose regional economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.

After the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter 12  April 1861, and Lincoln's subsequent call for troops on 15 April four more states declared their secession in May: Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and.North Carolina.

The American Civil War broke out in April 1861 with a Confederate victory at the Battle of Fort Sumter in Charleston.

The war ended when General in Chief of the Confederate forces Robert E. Lee,  surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865.

 The coat of arms of the Confederation appeared on coins minted in 1861. It was:


Arms: Argent, seven pales Gules, a chief Azure, seven five-pointed stars Argent 4 &3

Crest: A cap of liberty

Garland: Of cotton and wheat

Half Dollar, 1861



The Seal of the Confederated States

The Confederates States adopted a great seal on 30 April 1863. Its device is of the equestrian statue of George Washington on Capitol Square in Richmond (Virginia), surrounded by a garland of agricultural crops: wheat, rice, sugar cane, cotton and tobacco. The legend reads:

« the confederate states of america 22 february 1862.« deo vindice (God as Our Defender). Later, when the war was over, many coloured versions were made.


Statue of George Washington, Ricmond


Flags of the Confederation adopted 1861-1863


Configuration of arms, seal, flags and supporters (after 1863).

In the chief of the arms eight stars





American Historcal Review. American Historical Association. Vol. 82 N°3. June 1977. Frontispiece.

Boney, F.N.: The Great Seal of the Confederacy. In: The Encyclopaedia Americana. New York, 1972.

Hunt, G.: History of the Seal of the United States. Dept. of State, 1909.

Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. Washington, 1904-1937.

Patterson, R.S.: Seal of the United States. In: Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 1941.

Patterson, R.S.: The Old Treaty Seal of the United States. In: The American Service Journal. Vol. 26, March 1949. Pp. 14-16 & 44.

Smith, W.: Great Seal of the United States. In: Encyclopaedia Americana. New York, 1972.

Totten, C.A.L.: Seal of History. New Haven, 1897, Vol. I.

Zieber, E.: Heraldry in America. Philadelphia 1909. Pp. 94-105.



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© Hubert de Vries 2017-12-23



1 Journals of Congress, vol. iv. p.39

[2] Patterson, Richard S. Seal of the United States. In: Encyclopeadia Brittanica. Vol. XX. 1941. Pp. 243 A & B. Bibliography: Continental Congress Papers in Library of Congress Archives of the Department of State in the Deparetment and in the National Archives; Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 (Washington 1904-37); Statutes at larged of the United States; G. HUnt, History of the Seal of the United States (Department of State, 1909); C.A.L. Totten, Seal of History (New Haven, 1897, Vol. 1).

[3] Source:   Scanned from page 421 of The Eagle And The Shield, 1978, by Richard S. Patterson and Richardson Dougall. Reprinted from July 3, 1885 issue of the Daily Graphic, page 20. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

[4] Scanned from page 431 of The Eagle And The Shield, 1978, by Richard S. Patterson and Richardson Dougall. Courtesy of the Office off the Curator, the White House.



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